The angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphism in different ethnic groups of geriatric age living in the Far North


The study of ACE gene I/D polymorphism has been carried out in elderly, senile and long-liver patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) taking into account their nationality, age and sex. It has been recorded that with the increase of age there is a decrease in the frequency of the genotype ACE*I/*I and a tendency of increase in the frequency of the genotype ACE*D/*D. A comparative analysis of genotypes АСЕ*D/*D and АСЕ*D/*I has showed sex differences in the frequency of homozygous genotype detection. Left ventricular hypertrophy can be observed significantly more often among carriers of genotype ACE*I/*I established by Sokolow-Lyon ECG signs. Association analysis of ACE gene I/D polymorphism has registered significant differences in BMI and blood lipid parameters.

Share and Cite:

Arkhipova, N. , Popova, E. and Grigorieva, L. (2014) The angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphism in different ethnic groups of geriatric age living in the Far North. Health, 6, 426-431. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.65060.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Bello, N. and Mosca, L. (2004) Epidemiology of coronary heart disease in women. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 4, 287-295.
[2] Yakovlev, V.M. and Hite, G.Y. (2011) Basics of Geriatric Cardiology. A guide for practicing physicians. Publishing House Vidar-M, 424.
[3] Timofeev, L.F., Krivoshapkin, V.G. and Lazebnyk, O.A. (2012) Protection of public health in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Health Atlas, 212.
[4] Boqueria, L.A. and Gudkova, R.G. (2012) Cardiovascular Surgery—2011. Diseases and congenital anomalies of the circulatory system. Scientific Center of Cardiovascular Surgery Bakuleva RAMS, 196.
[5] Boitsov, S.A., Nikulina, N.N., Yakushin, S.S., et al. (2011) Sudden cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease: Prevalence, detection and statistical accounting problems. Russian Journal of Cardiology, 2, 59-64.
[6] (2013) State report on condition of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in 2012. Offset, Yakutsk 226.
[7] Tereshchenko, S.N., Zateyschikov, D.A., Zhirkov, I.V., et al. (2009) Gene polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin II, No-synthase receptors estrogen and gender differences in their influence on the development of cardiovascular disease. Cardiology, 4, 58-62.
[8] Оlshansky, S.J. (2006) Future. The Longevity dividend. The scientist, 20, 28-36.
[9] Mattei, M.G., Hubert, C. and Alhenc-Gelas, F. (1989) Angiotensin converting enzyme gene is on chromosome 17. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 51, 1041.
[10] Glotov, O.S. and Baranov, V.C. (2007) Genetic polymorphism of aging. Advances in Gerontology, 2, 35-55.
[11] Havinson, V.H., Solovieva, D.V., Strekalov, D.L., et al. (2002) Analysis of the distribution in the Russian population of some genetic markers associated with multifactorial pathologies of average and old age. Medical Academy Journal, 2, 56-66.
[12] Voevoda, M.E. (2001) Polymorphism and linkage with risk factors of some susceptibility genes to cardiovascular diseases in ethnic groups of Siberia, molecular epidemiological and evolutionary-genetic aspects. Ph.D. Dissertation, 53.
[13] Luft, F.C. (1999) Bad genes, good people, association, Linkage, longevity and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 26, 576-579.
[14] Blanche, H., Cabanne, L., Sanbatou, M., et al. (2001) A study of French centenarians: Are ACE and APOE associated with Longevity. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie, 324, 129-135.
[15] Malygina, N.A., Kostomarova, I.V., Gankovskaya, O.A., et al. (1999) Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in patients with coronary heart disease of elderly. 4, 31-35.
[16] Malygina, N.A., Kostomarova, I.V. and Melent’ev, A.S. (2002) Linkage of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism with hereditary predisposition to myocardial infarction. Clinical Medicine, 8, 25-29.
[17] Ruiz, J., Blanché, H., Cohen, N., et al. (1994) Insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene is strongly associated with coronary heart disease in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91, 3662-3665.
[18] O’Donnell, C.J., Lindpaintner, K., Larson, M.G., et al. (1998) Evidence for association and genetic linkage of the angiotensin-converting enzyme locus with hypertension and blood pressure in men but not women in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation, 97, 1766-1772.
[19] Anisimov, V.N. (2008) Molecular and physiological mechanisms of aging. 1, 481.
[20] US Department of Health and Human Services (2000) Healthy people 2010: Understanding and improving health. Government Printing Office, Washington.
[21] Moiseyev, V.S., Demurov, L.M., Kobalava, J.D., et al. (1997) ACE gene polymorphism in patients with hypertensive disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial infarction at a young age. Therapeutic Archives, 9, 18-23.
[22] Kamitani, A., Rakugy, H., Higaki, J., et al. (1995) Enhanced predictability of myocardial infarction in Japanese by combined genotype analysis. Hypertension, 5, 950-953.
[23] Prasad, N., O’Kane, K.P., Johnstone, H.A., et al. (1994) The relationship between blood pressure and left ventricular mass in essential hypertension is observed only in the presence of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene deletion allele. Quart Journal of Medicine, 11, 659-662.
[24] Saygitov, R.T., Glaser, M.G., Sementsov, D.P., et al. (2006) I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Cardiovascular therapy and prevention, 8, 34-41.
[25] Frederiksen, H. (2003) Angiotensin I—converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism in relation to physical performance, cognition and survival—A follow-up study of elderly Danish twins. Annals of Epidemiology, 13, 57-65.
[26] Kotlovsky, M.Y., Kotlovskaya, O.S., Osedko, O.Y., et al. (2011) The deletion of allele of angiotensin-converting enzyme in people with hypertension and chronic form of CHD. Successes of Modern Science, 10, 40-43.
[27] Goncharova, L.N., Birlyukova, D.V., Timoshkina, E.I., et al. (2009) The study of the relationship of insertional deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene with a high body mass in patients with hypertension in different ethnic groups of the Republic of Mordovia. Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention, 6, 5-9.
[28] Stepanov, V.A., Puzyrev, V.P. and Charles, R.S. (1998) Analysis of angiotensin-converting enzyme of polymorphism associations with coronary atherosclerosis, lipid levels and blood pressure. Siberian Medical, 3/4, 20-25.
[29] Shabalin, A.V., Governor, M.I., Chernykh, N.I., et al. (2004) Longevity—Model for studying the aging process. BULLETIN SB RAMS, 4, 11-21.
[30] Grigorieva, L.V. (2006) Molecular genetic study of myocardial infarction in Yakut population. Ph.D. Dissertation, 24.
[31] Shadrina, M.I., Slominsky, P.A., Miloserdova, O.V., et al. (2001) The analysis of ACE gene polymorphism in patients with coronary heart disease in Moscow population. Genetics, 4, 540-544.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.