Share This Article:

Cytotoxic Properties of Lyophilized Beers in a Malignant Cell Line

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:285KB) PP. 45-51
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.51006    3,737 Downloads   4,926 Views  


Moderate beer consumption can be considered as part of a healthy diet since it may protect against heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis. The protective effects of beer reside in its polyphenol content whose chemical composition appears extremely complex. In the present study, five commercial beers with different polyphenol content (ranging between 690 - 2400 μM equivalents of quercetin) were employed to investigate their cytotoxic effect in vitro on HL-60 cells derived from a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. A significant reduction in cell viability was measured after 48 hours treatment. Lyophilized beers with higher polyphenol content showed the highest cytotoxicity compared to those with lower concentrations. However, when the assay was performed applying equal amounts of total polyphenols from different lyophilized beers, the sample possessing lowest amount of polyphenols (690 μM equivalents of quercetin) resulted the most effective in reducing cell viability. These data suggest that the biological activities of polyphenols present in beer are not simply dependent upon their total concentration, but qualitative profile and relative concentrations are even more important in determining their antiproliferative effects on cancer cells.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Spagnuolo, C. , Tedesco, I. , Volpe, M. , Bilotto, S. , Russo, M. and Russo, G. (2014) Cytotoxic Properties of Lyophilized Beers in a Malignant Cell Line. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 45-51. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.51006.


[1] M. B. Sporn and N. Suh, “Chemoprevention: An Essential Approach to Controlling Cancer,” Nature Review Cancer, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2002, pp. 537-543.
[2] C. Spagnuolo, M. Russo, S. Bilotto, I. Tedesco, B. Laratta and G. L. Russo, “Dietary Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention: The Example of the Flavonoid Quercetin in Leukemia,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1259, 2012, pp. 95-103.
[3] S. Bilotto, C. Spagnuolo, M. Russo, I. Tedesco, B. Laratta and G. L. Russo, “Dietary Phytochemicals in Chemoprevention of Cancer: An Update,” Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 13, 2013, pp. 2-24.
[4] T. Norat, D. Aune, D. Chan and D. Romaguera, “Fruits and Vegetables: Updating the Epidemiologic Evidence for the Wcrf/Aicr Lifestyle Recommendations for Cancer Prevention,” Cancer Treatment Research, Vol. 159, 2014, pp. 35-50.
[5] M. Russo, C. Spagnuolo, I. Tedesco, S. Bilotto and G. L. Russo, “The Flavonoid Quercetin in Disease Prevention and Therapy: Facts and Fancies,” Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol. 83, No. 1, 2012, pp. 6-15.
[6] C. J. Weng and G. C. Yen, “Flavonoids, a Ubiquitous Dietary Phenolic Subclass, Exert Extensive in Vitro AntiInvasive and in Vivo Anti-Metastatic Activities,” Cancer Metastasis Review, Vol. 31, No. 1-2, 2012, pp. 323-351.
[7] M. Gonzalez-Vallinas, M. Gonzalez-Castejon, A. Rodriguez-Casado and A. Ramirez de Molina, “Dietary Phytochemicals in Cancer Prevention and Therapy: A Complementary Approach with Promising Perspectives,” Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 71, No. 9, 2013, pp. 585-599.
[8] M. Russo, C. Spagnuolo, I. Tedesco and G. L. Russo, “Phytochemicals in Cancer Prevention and Therapy: Truth or Dare?” Toxins (Basel), Vol. 2, No. 4, 2010, pp. 517-551.
[9] H. J. Forman, K. J. Davies and F. Ursini, “How Do Nutritional Antioxidants Really Work: Nucleophilic Tone and Para-Hormesis Versus Free Radical Scavenging in Vivo,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, Vol. 66, 2014, pp. 24-35.
[10] B. Halliwell, “Free Radicals and Antioxidants: Updating a Personal View,” Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 70, No. 5, 2012, pp. 257-265.
[11] G. L. Russo, M. Russo, C. Spagnuolo, I. Tedesco, S. Bilotto, R. Iannitti and R. Palumbo, “Quercetin: A Pleiotropic Kinase Inhibitor against Cancer,” Cancer Treatment Research, Vol. 159, 2014, pp. 185-205.
[12] D. E. Brash and P. A. Havre, “New Careers for Antioxidants,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 99, No. 22, 2002, pp. 13969-13971.
[13] M. Nelson, “The Barbarian’s Beverage: A History of Beer in Ancient Europe,” Routledge, Abingdon, 2005, p. 1.
[14] V. C. Preedy, “Beer in Health and Disease Prevention,” Elsevier Inc., Academic Press, San Diego, 2009.
[15] S. Arranz, G. Chiva-Blanch, P. Valderas-Martinez, A. Medina-Remon, R. M. Lamuela-Raventos and R. Estruch, “Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer,” Nutrients, Vol. 4, No. 7, 2012, pp. 759781.
[16] C. Chao, “Associations between Beer, Wine, and Liquor Consumption and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 16, No. 11, 2007, pp. 2436-2447.
[17] S. Costanzo, A. Di Castelnuovo, M. B. Donati, L. Iacoviello and G. de Gaetano, “Wine, Beer or Spirit Drinking in Relation to Fatal and Non-Fatal Cardiovascular Events: A Meta-Analysis,” European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 11, 2011, pp. 833-850.
[18] V. Valls-Belles, C. Torres, P. Muniz and P. CodonerFranch, “Effect of Beer Consumption on Levels of Complex I and Complex Iv Liver and Heart Mitochondrial Enzymes and Coenzymes Q9 and Q10 in AdriamycinTreated Rats,” European Journal Nutrition, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2010, pp. 181-187.
[19] G. Vilahur, L. Casani, J. M. Guerra and L. Badimon, “Intake of Fermented Beverages Protect against Acute Myocardial Injury: Target Organ Cardiac Effects and Vasculoprotective Effects,” Basic Research Cardiology, Vol. 107, No. 5, 2012, p. 291.
[20] H. Nozawa, A. Yoshida, O. Tajima, M. Katayama, H. Sonobe, K. Wakabayashi and K. Kondo, “Intake of Beer Inhibits Azoxymethane-Induced Colonic Carcinogenesis in Male Fischer 344 Rats,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 108, No. 3, 2004, pp. 404-411.
[21] C. Gerhauser, “Beer Constituents as Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Agents,” European Journal Cancer, Vol. 41, No. 13, 2005, pp. 1941-1954.
[22] G. Iacomino, I. Tedesco and G. L. Russo, “Biological Properties of Beer and Its Components Compared to Wine,” In: V. R. Preddy, Ed., Beer in Health and Disease Prevention, Elsevier Inc., Academic Press, San Diego, 2009, pp. 483-490.
[23] P. J. Magalhaes, D. O. Carvalho, J. M. Cruz, L. F. Guido and A. A. Barros, “Fundamentals and Health Benefits of Xanthohumol, a Natural Product Derived from Hops and Beer,” Natural Product Communications, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2009, pp. 591-610.
[24] I. Tedesco, A. Nappo, F. Petitto, G. Iacomino, F. Nazzaro, R. Palumbo and G. L. Russo, “Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Properties of Lyophilized Beer Extracts on Hl-60 Cell Line,” Nutrution & Cancer, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2005, pp. 7483.
[25] J. F. Stevens, A. W. Taylor, J. E. Clawson and M. L. Deinzer, “Fate of Xanthohumol and Related Prenylflavonoids from Hops to Beer,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 47, No. 6, 1999, pp. 2421-2428.
[26] H. Hirata, Yimin, S. Segawa, M. Ozaki, N. Kobayashi, T. Shigyo and H. Chiba, “Xanthohumol Prevents Atherosclerosis by Reducing Arterial Cholesterol Content via Cetp and Apolipoprotein E in Cetp-Transgenic Mice,” PLoS One, Vol. 7, No. 11, 2012, Article ID: e49415.
[27] S. Kapoor, “Xanthohumol and It’s Emerging Anti-Neoplastic Effects: Beyond It’s Role in Breast Carcinomas,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Vol. 56, No. 12, 2012, p. 1760.
[28] I. Zajc, M. Filipic and T. T. Lah, “Xanthohumol Induces Different Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Pathways in Malignant and Normal Astrocytes,” Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 26, No. 11, 2012, pp. 1709-1713.
[29] J. Plazar, B. Zegura, T. T. Lah and M. Filipic, “Protective Effects of Xanthohumol against the Genotoxicity of Benzo(a)Pyrene (Bap), 2-Amino-3-Methylimidazo[4,5-F] Quinoline (Iq) and Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide (T-Booh) in Hepg2 Human Hepatoma Cells,” Mutation Research, Vol. 632, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 1-8.
[30] K. B. Harikumar, A. B. Kunnumakkara, K. S. Ahn, P. Anand, S. Krishnan, S. Guha and B. B. Aggarwal, “Modification of the Cysteine Residues in Ikappabalpha Kinase and Nf-Kappab (P65) by Xanthohumol Leads to Suppression of Nf-Kappab-Regulated Gene Products and Potentiation of Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells,” Blood, Vol. 113, No. 9, 2009, pp. 2003-2013.
[31] T. L. Yen, C. K. Hsu, W. J. Lu, C. Y. Hsieh, G. Hsiao, D. S. Chou, G. J. Wu and J. R. Sheu, “Neuroprotective Effects of Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Flavonoid from Hops (Humulus Lupulus), in Ischemic Stroke of Rats,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 60, No. 8, 2012, pp. 1937-1944.
[32] H. Nozawa, W. Nakao, F. Zhao and K. Kondo, “Dietary Supplement of Isohumulones Inhibits the Formation of Aberrant Crypt Foci with a Concomitant Decrease in Prostaglandin E2 Level in Rat Colon,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Vol. 49, No. 8, 2005, pp. 772-778.
[33] V. L. Singleton and J. A. Rossi Jr., “Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with 726 Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 16, 1965, pp. 144-158.
[34] R. Gallagher, S. Collins, J. Trujillo, K. McCredie, M. Ahearn, S. Tsai, R. Metzgar, G. Aulakh, R. Ting, F. Ruscetti and R. Gallo, “Characterization of the Continuous, Differentiating Myeloid Cell Line (Hl-60) from a Patient with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia,” Blood, Vol. 54, No. 3, 1979, pp. 713-733.
[35] M. Russo, R. Palumbo, A. Mupo, M. Tosto, G. Iacomino, A. Scognamiglio, I. Tedesco, G. Galano and G. L. Russo, “Flavonoid Quercetin Sensitizes a Cd95-Resistant Cell Line to Apoptosis by Activating Protein Kinase Calpha,” Oncogene, Vol. 22, No. 21, 2003, pp. 3330-3342.
[36] F. A. Inon, S. Garrigues and M. de la Guardia, “Combination of Midand Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Determination of the Quality Properties of Beers,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 571, No. 2, 2006, pp. 167-174.
[37] E. Polshin, A. Rudnitskaya, D. Kirsanov, A. Legin, D. Saison, F. Delvaux, F. R. Delvaux, B. M. Nicolai and J. Lammertyn, “Electronic Tongue as a Screening Tool for Rapid Analysis of Beer,” Talanta, Vol. 81, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 88-94.
[38] A. G. Mignani, L. Ciaccheri, A. A. Mencaglia, H. Ottevaere, E. E. S. Baca and H. Thienpont, “Optical Measurements and Patternrecognition Techniques for Identifying the Characteristics of Beer and Distinguishing Belgian Beers,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 179, 2013, pp. 140-149.
[39] M. Dvorakova, M. M. Moreira, P. Dostalek, Z. Skulilova, L. F. Guido and A. A. Barros, “Characterization of Monomeric and Oligomeric Flavan-3-Ols from Barley and Malt by Liquid Chromatography-Ultraviolet DetectionElectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1189, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 398405.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.