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Estimation of Snowmelt Infiltration into Frozen Ground and Snowmelt Runoff in the Mogot Experimental Watershed in East Siberia

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DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.410131    4,470 Downloads   5,789 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Understanding how spring runoff is generated in East Siberia during the spring thaw is important to predicting river flows. To evaluate the snowmelt runoff generated, a simple runoff model was developed. The model involves processes of water and energy balance within the snowpack and energy balance within soil, snowmelt infiltration into the frozen ground, and surface runoff. The model reproduced inter-seasonal and seasonal variations of snow depth, active layer depth within soil, and snowmelt runoff. Snowmelt infiltration into frozen ground within the upper 20 cm of soil was also reproduced by the model. Thus, we believe the model can simulate snowmelt infiltration and surface runoff in the Mogot experiment watershed. The model suggested that the inter-annual variation in infiltration determined the amount of spring runoff. The amount of infiltration during thaws exceeded the discharge; the range was from 20 to 60 mm and the percentage of infiltration to melt water was 44% to 60%. Therefore, infiltration into the frozen ground strongly determined snowmelt runoff. In addition, ongoing climatic change can increase snowmelt runoff, because of less sublimation loss and snowmelt infiltration into the frozen ground.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

K. Suzuki, "Estimation of Snowmelt Infiltration into Frozen Ground and Snowmelt Runoff in the Mogot Experimental Watershed in East Siberia," International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 4 No. 10, 2013, pp. 1346-1354. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2013.410131.

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