Scientific Research

An Academic Publisher

The Oscillating Universe Theory (To the Unified Field Theory)

**Author(s)**Leave a comment

This paper represents model of
oscillating universe theory. We try to realize model of both electromagnetic
waves and spectrum of elementary particles from the unified point of view.
Consideration of problems of the gravitational optics and dark matter is
developing from the solid crystal model for the vacuum. The vacuum is
represented as a three-dimensional crystal lattice matter with a very small
lattice period, much less than 10^{-}^{26} cm. The oscillators are located
at the nodes of an infinite lattice. It is shown that an infinite set of
equations to describe the coupled oscillations of moving oscillators converges
to a system of twelve equations. We have obtained the combined equations for a
multicomponent order parameter in the form of the electric and magnetic vacuum
polarization, which defines the spectrum and symmetry of normal oscillations in the form of elementary particles. Two
order parameters—a polar vector and an axial vector— had to be introduced as electrical and magnetic
polarization, correspondingly, in order to describe dynamic properties of
vacuum. Vacuum susceptibility has been determined to be equal to the fine
structure constant *a*. Unified interaction
constant *g* for all particles equal to
the double charge of Dirac monopole has been found (*g** *= *e*/*a*, where *e*—electron
charge). The fundamental vacuum constants are: *g*, *a*, parameters of length and parameters of time for electron and
nucleon oscillations, correspondingly. Energy of elementary particles has been
expressed in terms of the fundamental vacuum parameters, light velocity being
equal to . The term mass of particle has been shown to have no
independent meaning. Particle energy does have physical sense as wave packet
energy related to vacuum excitation. Exact equation for particle movement in
the gravitational field has been derived, the equation being applied to any
relatively compact object: planet, satellite, electron, proton, photon and
neutrino. The situation has been examined according to the cosmological
principle when galaxies are distributed around an infinite space. In this case
the recession of galaxies is impossible, so the red shift of far galaxies’
radiation has to be interpreted as the blue time shift of atomic spectra; it
follows that zero-energy, and consequently electron mass are being increased at
the time. Since physical vacuum has existed eternally, vacuum parameters can be
either constant, or oscillating with time. It is the time oscillation of the
parameters that leads to the growth of electron mass within the last 15 billion
years and that is displayed in the red shift; the proton mass being decreased
that is displayed in planet radiation.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

*International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 438-463. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.34052.

[1] | F. Zwicky, “Die Rotverschiebung von Extragalaktischen Nebeln,” Helvetica Physica Acta, Vol. 6, 1933, pp. 110-127. |

[2] | K. C. Freeman, “On the Disk of Spiral and Galaxies,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 160, 1970, p. 811. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/150474 |

[3] | J. A. Tyson, F. Valdes, J. F. Jarvis and A. P. Mills Jr., “Galaxy Mass Distribution from Gravitational Light Deflection,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 281, 1984, pp. L59-L62. |

[4] | A. G. Riess, A. V. Filippenko, P. Challis, A. Clocchiatti, A. Diercks, P. M. Garnavich, R. L. Gilliland, C. J. Hogan, J. Saurabh, R. P. Kirshner, B. Leibundgut, M. M. Phillips, D. Reiss, B. P. Schmidt, R. A. Schommer, R. C. Smith, J. Spyromilio, C. Stubbs, N. B. Suntzeff and J. Tonry, “Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant,” Astronomical Journal, Vol. 116, No. 3, 1998, p. 1009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/300499 |

[5] | S. Perlmutter, G. Aldering, G. Goldhaber, R. A. Knop, P. Nugent, P. G. Castro, S. Deustua, S. Fabro, A. Goobar, I. M. Hook, M. Y. Kim, J. C. Lee, N. J. Nunes, R. Pain, C. R. Pennypacker and R. Quimby, “Measurements of {OMEGA} and {LAMBDA} from 42 High-Redshift Supernovae,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 517, No. 2, 1999, p. 565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/307221 |

[6] | E. Q. Milne, “A Newtonian Expending Universe,” Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1934, pp. 64-72. |

[7] | E. V. Chensky, “New Consideration of Problems of Gravitational Optics and Dark Matter Based on Crystal Model of Vacuum,” Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis & Applications, Vol. 2, No. 8, 2010, pp. 495-512. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jemaa.2010.28066 |

[8] | P. A. M. Dirac, “Quantised Singularities in the Electromagnetic Field,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A, Vol. 133, No. 821, 1931, pp. 60-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1931.0130 |

[9] | D. Pines, “Elementary Excitations in Solid,” W. A. Bejamin, New York, Amsterdam, 1963. |

[10] | A. D. Chernin, “Dark Energy and Universal Antigravitaition,” Physics-Uspekhi, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2008, pp. 253-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1070/PU2008v051n03ABEH006320 |

[11] | V. N. Lukash and V. A. Rubakov, “Dark Energy: Myths and Reality,” Physics-Uspekhi, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2008, pp. 283-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1070/PU2008v051n03ABEH006567 |

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.