Share This Article:

Physico-Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Wheat Bread Supplemented with Stabilized Undefatted Rice Bran

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:156KB) PP. 43-48
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.49A2007    5,508 Downloads   8,528 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The effect of rice bran supplementation on some physicochemical and sensory properties of wheat bread was deter mined. Blends of wheat flour and rice bran (95:5, 90:10 and 85:15) were used to bake bread with 100% wheat flour as control. Thereafter, proximate, vitamin and mineral composition, as well as the physical and sensory properties of the dough and bread loaves were determined, using standard methods of analysis. The moisture content, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and ash of the composite bread loaves increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 21.07% to 23.67%, 12.04% to 13.10%, 1.57% to 3.77%, 1.76% to 2.91% and 1.46% to 2.41% respectively; while carbohydrate content decreased with increased level of supplementation from 62.10% to 54.14%. There were significant increases (p < 0.05) in vitamin B1 (Thiamin) from 0.15 mg/100g to 0.47 mg/100g and B2 (Niacin) from 3.31 mg/100g to 4.04 mg/100g but no significant increase (p > 0.05) in vitamin B3 (Riboflavin). Mineral content of the bread increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased level of supplementation from 9.32 mg/100g to 20.52 mg/100g (Iron), 80.74 mg/100g to 188.20 mg/100g (Potassium), 81.31 mg/100g to 130.70 mg/100g (Calcium) and 13.65 mg/100g to 132.22 mg/100g (Magne sium). However, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in sodium with increased level of supplementation from 305.25 mg/100g to 253.03 mg/100g. Bread loaf weight increased from 152.7 g to 162.7 g; while loaf volume decreased from 655.2 ml to 586.0 ml and specific loaf volume decreased from 4.29 ml/g to 3.60 ml/g. There were significant dif ferences (p < 0.05) in physical properties of dough and bread loaves between the composite bread and the control. Though 100% wheat bread had better acceptability scores (7.95) compared to composite bread (7.20 for 95:5 blend), all the composite bread samples had significantly (p < 0.05) higher values for nutritional parameters. There was therefore, a significant improvement in the nutritional composition of the wheat bread with rice bran supplementation.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Ameh, D. Gernah and B. Igbabul, "Physico-Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Wheat Bread Supplemented with Stabilized Undefatted Rice Bran," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 9B, 2013, pp. 43-48. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.49A2007.

References

[1] O. C. Adeboye, “Proximate Composition and Nutrient Analysis of Six Selected Leafy Vegetables of South West Nigeria,” Ife Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 18, No. 12, 1996, pp. 5663.
[2] J. Young, “Functional Bakery Products: Current Direc tions and Future Opportunities,” Food Industry Journal, Vol. 4, 2001, pp. 136144.
[3] L. H. McKee and T. A. Latner, “Underutilized Sources of Dietary Fibre: A Review,” Plant Foods for Human Nutri tion, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2000, pp. 285304.
[4] E. Hallen, S. Ibsnoglu and P. Anisworth, “Effect of Fer mented/Germinated Cowpea Flour Addition on the Rheo logical and Baking Properties of Wheat Flour,” Food En gineering, Vol. 63, No. 2, 2004, pp. 177184.
[5] S. Rehman, A. Paterson, S. Hussain, M. A. Murtaza and S. Mehmood, “Influence of Partial Substitution of Wheat Flour with Vetch (Lathyrus sativus L) Flour on Quality Characteristics of Doughnuts,” Leben Smitted Wissen chaffund Technologies, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2007, pp. 7382.
[6] R. M. Junqueira, M. L. Cocato, C. Colli and L. A. Castro, “Synergisms between LipoxygenaseActive Soybean Flour and Ascorbic Acid on Rheology and Bread Quality,” Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, Vol. 87, 2008, pp. 11721175.
[7] M. Arshad, F. Anjum and T. Zahoor, “Nutritional Assess ment of Cookies Supplemented with Deflated Wheat Germ,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 102, No. 1, 2007, pp. 123 128. ,
”doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.040
[8] F. Koca and M. Anil, “Effect of Flaxseed and Wheat Flour Blends on Dough Rheology and Bread Quality,” Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, Vol. 87, No. 6, 2000, pp. 11721175. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2739
[9] B. Skrbic and B. Filipcev, “Nutritional and Sensory Eval uation of Wheat Breads Supplemented with OleicRich Flower Seed,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 180, No. 1, 2008, pp. 119129. ,
”doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.052
[10] B. A. Z. Mardiana, “Effects of Partial Substitution of Wheat Flour with Chempedak (Artocarpus integer) Seed Flour on the PhysicoChemical, Organoleptic and Micro biological Attributes of the Bread,” M.Sc. Thesis, Uni versity of Sains, Malaysia, 2008.
[11] C. Q. Sharp and K. J. Kitchen, “Using Rice Bran in Yeast Bread in a Home Baker,” Cereal Foods World, Vol. 35, No. 10, 1990, pp. 10211028.
[12] H. R. Sharma and G. S. Chauhan, “Effect of Stabilized Rice BranFenugreek Blends on the Quality of Breads and Cookies,” Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2002, pp. 225233.
[13] R. M. Saunders, “The Properties of Rice Bran as a Food Stuff,” Cereal Foods World, Vol. 35, No. 7, 1990, pp. 632639.
[14] N. Deep, K. YadavKrishna and R. SinghJagbir, “Studies on Fortification of Wheat Flour with Defatted Rice Bran for ‘Chapati’ Making,” Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2010, pp. 96102.
[15] H. Hu, M. Rabinowitz and D. Smith, “Bone Lead as a Biological Marker in Epidemiological Studies of Chronic Toxicity: Conceptual Paradigms,” Environmental Health Perspective, Vol. 106, No. 1, 1998, pp. 18. doi:10.1289/ehp.981061
[16] Z. Xu, “Purification and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran YOryzanol Components,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Lou isiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1998.
[17] D. J. Farrell, “Utilization of Rice Bran in Diets for Do mestic Fowls and Ducklings,” World’s Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2, 1994, pp. 115131.
[18] L. E. Carroll, “Functional Properties and Application of Stabilized Rice Bran in Bakery Products,” Journal of Food Technology, Vol. 44, 1990, pp. 7476.
[19] J. Godber, Z. Xu, D. Hegsted and T. Walker, “Rice and Rice Bran Oil in Functional Foods Development,” Lou isiana Agriculture, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2004, pp. 910.
[20] K. S. Sekhon, S. S. Dhillon, N. Singh and B. Singh, “Functional Suitability of Commercially Milled Rice Bran in India for Use in Different Food Products,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 50, No. 2, 1997, pp. 127140. doi:10.1007/BF02436032
[21] B. Singh, K. S. Sekhon and N. Singh, “Suitability of Full Fat and Defatted Rice Bran Obtained from Indian Rice for Use in Food Products,” Plant Foods for Human Nutri tion, Vol. 47, No. 3, 1995, pp. 191200.
[22] G. S. Chauhan, R. R. Zilliman and N. A. M. Eskin, “Dough Mixing and Bread Making Properties of Guinea Corn/Wheat Flour Blends,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 27, No. 6, 1992, pp. 701 705. doi:10.1111/j.13652621.1992.tb01241.x
[23] Association of Official Analytical Chemist, “Official Me thods of Analysis,” 18th Edition, Arlington, V.A., 1996, pp. 806842.
[24] A. I. Ihekoronye and P. O. Ngoddy, “Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics,” Macmillan Publishers, New York, 1985, pp. 296301.
[25] G. I. Onwuka, “Food Analysis and Instrumentation,” Nphatali Press, Lagos, 2005, pp. 178179.
[26] S. Y. Giarni, M. N. Adnindu, M. O. Akusu and J. N. T Emenike, “Compositional, Functional and Storage Prop erties of Flours from Raw and Heat Processed African Bread Fruit (Treculia africana Dence) Seeds,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 55, 2004, pp. 357368.
[27] M. C. Meilgaard, G. V. Civille and B. T. Carr, “Sensory Evaluation Techniques,” 4th Edition, C.R.C. Press L.L.C., New York, 2007.
[28] T. S. Kehlon, F. I. Chow and R. N. Sayre, “Cholesterol Lowering Properties of Rice Bran,” Cereal Foods World, Vol. 39, 1994, pp. 99103.
[29] N. Dale, “Feedstuffs Ingredient Analysis Table. Feed Stuff,” Watt Publication. Co., IL, 1997, pp. 4852.
[30] S. Gropper and J. Smith, “Advanced Nutrition and Hu man Metabolism,” Cengage Learning Betmont, CA, 2009.
[31] O. O. Oladunmoye, R. Akinoso and A. A. Olapade, “Eva luation of Some PhysicChemical Propreties of Wheat, Cassava, Maize and Cowpea Flours for Bread Making,” Journal of Food Quality, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2010, pp. 693 708. doi:10.1111/j.17454557.2010.00351.x
[32] J. L. Greene and A. C. BovellBenjamin, “Macroscopic and Sensory Evaluation of Bread Supplemented with Sweet Potato Flour,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 69, No. 4, 2004, pp. 167173.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.