Share This Article:

Change in stature by walking and running at a preferred transition speed

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:195KB) PP. 1377-1381
DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.212204    4,118 Downloads   7,970 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to measure stature changes during and after walking and running at a preferred transition speed (PTS) and the recovery period, and to examine differences caused by loads imposed on the spinal column. Seven males and three females aged 22-41 years took part in this study. Subjects The subjects underwent 15 minutes of walking or running on a treadmill in a random order. Stature changes were measured during each exercise at intervals of 5 minutes and after a 20 minute standing recovery period within units of 0.01 mm. Two- way ANOVA revealed that both main factors, gait (F = 5.250, P < 0.05) and elapsed time (F = 14.409, P < 0.05), had a significant effect on stature. In the post hoc test, stature shrank with time and its loss was found to be greater in running than in walking, but recovered after both exercises. In conclusion, the spinal load increases with time during both walking and running at PTS, but is greater in running than in walking. After both exercises, spinal shrinkage shows a similar recovery process and recovers faster in walking to its pre-exercise level.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Demura, S. , Yamada, T. , Kitabayashi, T. and Uchiyama, M. (2010) Change in stature by walking and running at a preferred transition speed. Health, 2, 1377-1381. doi: 10.4236/health.2010.212204.

References

[1] Hreljac, A. (1993) Preferred and energetically optimal gait transition speeds in human locomotion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 1158-1162.
[2] Hreljac, A. (1995) Determinants of the gait transition speed during human locomotion: kinematic factors. Journal of Biomechanics, 28, 669-677.
[3] Hreljac, A., Imamura, R.T., Escamilla, R. F., Edwards, W. B. and MacLeod, T. (2008) The relationship between joint kinetic factors and the walk-run gait transition speed during human locomotion. Journal of Applied Biomechan-ics, 24, 149-157.
[4] Neptune, R.R. and Sasaki, K. (2005) Ankle plantar flexor force production is an important determinant of the pre-ferred walk-to-run transition speed. Journal of Experi-mental Biology, 208, 799-808.
[5] Spelman, C.C., Pate, R. R., Macera, C. A. and Ward, D. S. (1993) Self-selected exercise intensity of habitual walkers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 1174-1179.
[6] Hardman, A.E. and Hudson, A. (1994) Brisk walking and serum lipid and lipoprotein variables in previously se-dentary women—effect of 12 weeks of regular brisk walking followed by 12 weeks of detraining. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 261-266.
[7] Cavanagh, P.R. and Lafortune, M.A. (1980) Ground reaction force in distance running. Journal of Biome-chanics, 13, 397-406.
[8] Chao, E., Laughman, R., Schneider, E. and Stauffer, R. (1983) Normative data of knee joint motion and ground reaction force in adult level walking. Journal of Biome-chanics, 16, 219-233.
[9] Nilsson, J. and Thorstensson, A. (1989) Ground reaction forces at different speeds of human walking and running. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 136, 217-227.
[10] Fowler, N. E. and Reilly, T. (1997) Changes in stature following plyometric drop-jump and pendulum exercises. Ergonomics, 40, 1279-1286.
[11] Reilly, T., Tyrrell, A. and Troup, J.D.G. (1984) Circadian variation in human stature. Chronobiology International, 1, 121-126.
[12] Reilly, T., Boocock, M.G., Garbutt, G., Troup, J.D. and Linge, K. (1991) Change in stature during exercise and sports training. Applied Ergonomics, 22, 308-311.
[13] Reilly, T. and Freeman, A. (2006) Effects of loading on spinal shrinkage in males of different age groups. Applied Ergonomics, 37, 305-310.
[14] Boocock, M.G., Garbutt, G., Reilly, T. and Troup, D. G. (1990) Change in stature following drop jumping and post-exercise gravity inversion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22, 385-390.
[15] Bourne, N.D. and Reilly, T. (1991) Effect of a weightlifting belt on spinal shrinkage. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 25, 209-212.
[16] Fowler, N.E. and Reilly, T. (1994) Spinal shrinkage in unloaded and loaded drop-jumping. Ergonomics, 37, 133 -139.
[17] Garbutt, G., Boocock, M.G., Reilly, T. and Troup, J.D.G. (1990) Running speed and spinal shrinkage in runners with and without low back pain. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, 22, 769-772.
[18] Rodacki, C.L.N., Fowler, N.E., Rodacki, A.L.F. and Birch, K. (2001) Repeatability of measurement in determining stature in sitting and standing posture. Ergonomics, 12, 1076-1085.
[19] Foreman, T.K. and Linge, K. (1989) The importance of heel compression in the measurement of diurnal stature variation. Applied Ergonomics, 20, 299-300.
[20] Rodacki, A.L.F., Fowler, N.E., Provensi, C.L.G., Rodacki, C.L.N. and Dezan, V. H. (2005) Body mass as a factor in stature change. Clinical Biomechanics, 20, 799-805.
[21] Haskell, W.L., Lee, I.M., Pate, R.R., Powell, K.E., Blair, S.N., Franklin, B.A., Macera, C.A., Heath, G.W., Thompson, P.D. and Bauman, A. (2007) Physical activity and public health: Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 1423-1434.
[22] Corlett, E.N., Eklund, J.A.E., Reilly, T. and Troup, J.D.G. (1987) Assessment of workload from measurement of stature. Applied Ergonomics, 18, 65-71.
[23] Adams, M.A. and Dolan, P. (1995) Recent advances in lumbar spinal mechanics and their clinical significance. Clinical Biomechanics, 10, 3-19.
[24] Perey, O. (1957) Fracture of the vertebral end plate in the lumbar spine: An experimental biomechanical investigation. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica Supplementum, 25, 1-101.
[25] Troup, J.D.G. (1965) Relation of lumbar spine disorders to heavy manual work and lifting. Lancet, 17, 857-861.
[26] Alexander, M.J.L. (1985) Biomechanical aspects of lumbar spine injuries in athletes: a review. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 10, 1-20.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.