Singularity-Free Superstar as an Alternative to Black Hole and Gravastar


Singularity-free superstar is proposed as a model for the collapse of large stars and for GRBs, and as an alternative to black hole and gravastar. Similar to a superconductor, a superstar contains extreme force fields that have non-zero momentum and non-zero wavelength to prevent the inactivation of force field at absolute zero and singularity (infinite interacting energy) at infinite density, respectively, based on the uncertainty principle. Emerging only at an extremely low temperature above absolute zero or an extremely high density below infinite density, extreme force fields are shortrange, and located in between a particle and its ordinary force fields (electromagnetic, weak, strong, and gravitational forces) to prevent the inactivation of force fields at absolute zero and singularity (infinite interacting energy) at infinite density in ordinary force fields. Extreme force fields are manifested as the bonds among electrons in a superconductor and among atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. When the stellar core of a large star reaches the critical extreme density during the stellar collapse, the stellar core is transformed into the super matter core with extreme force fields and ordinary force fields without singularity. A pre-superstar contains the super matter core, the ordinary matter region, and the thin phase boundary between the super matter core and the ordinary matter region. The stellar collapse increases the super matter core by converting the in falling ordinary energy and matter from the ordinary matter region into the super matter, and decreases the ordinary matter region. Eventually, the stellar breakup occurs to detach the ordinary matter region and the phase boundary from the super matter core, resulting in GRB to account for the observed high amount of gamma rays and the observed complex light curves in GRBs. Unlike black holes and gravastars that lose information, singularity-free superstars that keep all information exist.

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D. Chung and V. Krasnoholovets, "Singularity-Free Superstar as an Alternative to Black Hole and Gravastar," Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 7A, 2013, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2013.47A1001.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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