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Monoclonal antibody and its use in the diagnosis of livestock diseases

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DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.44A008    6,496 Downloads   12,548 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery of hybridoma cells by Kohler and Milstein, the uses of monoclonal antibody (mAb), the protein produced by such cells are in vogue. Such antibodies with single isotype have higher specificity, and the serological tests employed in show higher reproducibility compared to those with use of polyclonal antisera. There are several procedures of mAb production which vary considerably but the principle remains the same which states that antigens introduced into animals generally result in the stimulation of lymphocytes, some of which produce antibody of only one type, although the isotype may change. The developments in the field of cell culture and transfection technology have lead to the production of improved qualities of mAbs. In general, monoclonal antibodies are important reagents used in biomedical research, such as, in the field of diagnostics and therapeutics as well as targeted drug delivery systems. They have got importance not only for infectious diseases caused by microbes and parasites, but also for cancer, metabolic and hormonal disorders, in the diagnosis of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies and tissue typing, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (especially blocking ELISA), radio immunoassay (RIA), serotyping of pathogens and their immunological intervention with passive antibody, anti-idiotype inhibition or magic bullet therapy with cytotoxic agents coupled with antimouse specific antibody. The application of mAbs in diagnosis of various livestock diseases is an important area of concern as these diseases are a major and increasingly important factor reducing livestock productivity in various parts of the world. In this context, the application of mAbs for diagnosis of important bacterial diseases viz., Anthrax, Brucellosis, Paratuberculosis, Leptospirosis, Listeriosis, Clostridial infections and Mycoplasmosis (CBPP), fungal diseases viz., Zygomycosis, Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis and Paracoccidiodomycosis, viral diseases viz., Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/Infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV), Rota viral diarrhoea, Blue tongue, Rabies, Classical swine fever and re-emerging viral diseases like Hendra and Nipah viral infections and parasitic diseases viz., dirofilariosis, and Trichinellosis and haemportozoan diseases (including Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Anaplasmosis, infections caused by Plasmodium spp. as well as tick borne diseases) have been discussed thoroughly along with the specifications of the diagnostic assays for each disease for the convenience of the diagnosticians, researchers, scientists and students to employ such assays, both in field and laboratories to strengthen the disease control programme.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Deb, R. , Chakraborty, S. , Veeregowda, B. , Verma, A. , Tiwari, R. and Dhama, K. (2013) Monoclonal antibody and its use in the diagnosis of livestock diseases. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4, 50-62. doi: 10.4236/abb.2013.44A008.

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