Share This Article:

Clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in Mexican girls

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:78KB) PP. 243-248
DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.32046    5,837 Downloads   7,985 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Study Objective: To determine the prevalence of vulvovaginitis, predisposing factors, microbial etiology and therapy in patients treated at the Hospital del Nino DIF, Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Design. This was an observational and descriptive study from 2006 to 2009. Setting: Hospital del Nino DIF, Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Participants. Patients from 0 to 16 years, with vulvovaginitis and/or vaginal discharge were included. Interventions: None. Main Outcome Measures: Demographic data, etiology, clinical features, risk factors and therapy were analyzed. Results: Four hundred twenty seven patients with diagnosis of vulvovaginitis were included. The average prevalence to 4 years in the study period was 0.19%. The age group most affected was schoolchildren (225 cases: 52.69%). The main signs and symptoms presented were leucorrhea (99.3%), vaginal hyperemia (32.6%), vulvar itching (32.1%) and erythema (28.8%). Identified risk factors were poor hygiene (15.7%), urinary tract infection (14.7%), intestinal parasites (5.6%) and obesity or overweight (3.3%). The main microorganisms found in vaginal cultures were enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Enterococcus faecalis), Staphylococcus spp, and Gardnerella vaginalis. Several inconsistent were found in the drug prescription of the patients. Conclusion: Vulvovaginitis prevalence in Mexican girls is low and this was caused mainly by opportunist microorganisms. The initial treatment of vulvovaginitis must include hygienic measure and an antimicrobial according to the clinical features and microorganism found.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Ortiz, M. , Arreola-Bautista, E. , Sánchez-Reyes, B. , Sánchez-Reyes, B. and Escamilla-Acosta, M. (2013) Clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in Mexican girls. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3, 243-248. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2013.32046.

References

[1] Pierce, A.M. and Hart, C.A. (1992) Vulvovaginitis: Causes and management. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 6, 509-512. doi:10.1136/adc.67.4.509
[2] Stricker, T., Navratil, F. and Sennhauser, F.H. (2003) Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88, 324-326. doi:10.1136/adc.88.4.324
[3] Jaquiery, A., Stylianopoulos, A., Hogg, G. and Grover, S. (1999) Vulvovaginitis: Clinical features, aetiology, and microbiology of the genital tract. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 81, 64-67. doi:10.1136/adc.81.1.64
[4] Joishy, M., Ashtekar, C.S., Jain, A. and Gonsalves, R. (2005) Do we need to treat Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls? British Medical Journal, 330, 186-188. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7484.186
[5] Jasper, J.M. (2009) Vulvovaginitis in the prepubertal child. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 10, 10-13. doi:10.1016/j.cpem.2009.01.003
[6] Fischer, G. and Rogers, M. (2000) Vulvar disease in children: A clinical audit of 130 cases. Pediatric Dermatology, 17, 1-6. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1470.2000.01701.x
[7] Dei, M., Di Maggio, F., Di Paolo, G. and Bruni, V. (2010) Vulvovaginitis in childhood. Best Practice & Research, Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 24, 129-137. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2009.09.010
[8] Jones, R. (1996) Childhood Vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge in general practice. Family Practice, 13, 369-372. doi:10.1093/fampra/13.4.369
[9] Merkley, K. (2005) Vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge in the pediatric patient. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 31, 400-402. doi:10.1016/j.jen.2005.04.023
[10] Richens, J. (1994) Sexually transmitted diseases in children in developing countries. Genitourinary Medicine, 70, 278-283.
[11] Sharma, B., Preston, J. and Greemwood, P. (2004) Management of vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge in prepubertal girls. Reviews in Gynaecological Practice, 4, 111-120. doi:10.1016/j.rigp.2003.12.005
[12] Rees, A. and Mott, A. (2001) Management of vaginal discharge in pre-pubertal children. Current Paediatrics, 11, 375-380. doi:10.1054/cupe.2001.0205
[13] Cox, R.A. and Slack, M.P.E. (2002) Clinical and microbiological features of Haemophilus influenza vulvovaginitis in young girls. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 55, 961-964. doi:10.1136/jcp.55.12.961
[14] Cox, R.A. (1997) Haemophilus influenza: An underrated cause of vulvovaginitis in young girls. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 50, 765-768. doi:10.1136/jcp.50.9.765
[15] Velarde-Jurado, E., Estrada-Reyes, E., Erana-Guerra, L., Raya-Rivera, A., Velázquez-Armenta, E.Y. and NavaOcampo, A.A. (2003) Sexually transmitted infections associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity. Salud Pública de México, 45, S641-S646. doi:10.1590/S0036-36342003001100009?
[16] Rodríguez Pita, N.M., Pérez, J.M., Gutiérrez, M.C., Paulino, R.H., Rojas, J. and Chestaro, L. (2003) Prevalence of vulvovaginitis in children under 15 years. Revista Médica de Dominicana, 64, 48-50.
[17] Steele, A.M. and de San Lazaro, C. (1994) Transhymeal cultures for sexually transmissible organisms. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 71, 423-427. doi:10.1136/adc.71.5.423
[18] Hammerschlag, M.R., Alpert, S., Rosner, I., Thurston, P., Semine, D., McComb, D., et al. (1978) Microbiology of the vagina in children: Normal and potentially pathogenic organisms. Pediatrics, 62, 57-62.
[19] Podschun, R. and Ullmann, U. (1998) Klebsiella spp. as nosocomial pathogen: Epidemiology, taxonomy, typing methods, and pathogenicity factors. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 11, 589-603.
[20] Ariano, R.E., Zelenitsky, S.A. and Kassum, D.A. (2008) Aminoglycoside-induced vestibular injury: Maintaining a sense of balance. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 42, 1282-1289. doi:10.1345/aph.1L001

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.