A Phase II Trial of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy with Oral DPD-Inhibitory Fluoropyrimidines in Patients with Advanced Rectal Cancer


Background: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with 5-FU has been widely used to improve local control of disease and to preserve anal sphincter in the treatment of rectal cancer. UFT and S-1 as oral dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD)-inhibitory fluoropyrimidines enhance the therapeutic effect of 5-FU by modulating its metabolic pathways. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of CRT using UFT versus S-1 in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: Fifty-nine patients who received preoperative CRT (40 Gy radiotherapy) were randomly assigned to either UFT or S-1 groups. UFT and S-1 were administered during the radiotherapy course. Response to CRT was determined using a histopathologic examination and RECIST of surgically resected specimens and classified as responders (CR, PR and grade 2, 3) or nonresponders (SD, PD and grade 0, 1). Results: All patients were randomly allocated to S-1 group (n = 30) or UFT group (n = 29). Pathological response rate (Grade2 and Grade3) was 57% in the S-1 group and 45% in the UFT group (p = 0.36). Pathological complete response (CR) rate (Grade3) was 7% in the S-1 group and 4% in the UFT group (p = 0.98). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in regard to the response rate of RECIST (p = 0.52). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups based on the downstaging rate, resection of tumor, sphincter preservation and marginal invasion. The incidence of Grade 3 diarrhea was significantly more frequent in the S-1 group (7%) compared with the UFT group (0%) (p = 0.02). Conclusion: The results supported the conclusion that CRT using UFT or S-1 is effective and feasible for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

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M. Hotchi, H. Okitsu, M. Miura, M. Hamada, Y. Sonaka, Y. Fukuda, T. Ando and S. Kuratate, "A Phase II Trial of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy with Oral DPD-Inhibitory Fluoropyrimidines in Patients with Advanced Rectal Cancer," Journal of Cancer Therapy, Vol. 3 No. 6A, 2012, pp. 989-995. doi: 10.4236/jct.2012.326127.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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