Efficacy of rehabilitation program in addition to pharmacological treatment during 8 months in Parkinson patients


Objective: To compare 8-month effects ofmedical treatment plusrehabilitation on UPDRS scores ofparkinsonian patientswith that ofmedical treatment withoutrehabilitation.Design: Longtudinal randomized study. Participants:27 parkinsonian patients (69.50 ± 10.34 years). We divided our patient into two groups: control group (n = 9, received only medication therapy) and experiment- tal group (n = 18, received physiccal therapy and medication therapy). Intervention:The 8-month exercise interventions were twice-weekly 90-min sessions in group. UPDRS scales were measured before and after the interventions. Results: Two- factor ANOVA analyses revealed a significant main effect fromrehabilitation (p < 0.01) on UPDRS motor, ADL, and total, but not on UPDRS mental (p > 0.05). Post-hoc analysis shows that UPDRS motor increased in control group (+37%) meanwhile decreased in experimental group (–17%). UPDRS ADL increased significantly more in control group (+26%) than experimental group (+5%).UPDRS total increased in control group (+33%) meanwhile decreased in experimental group(–11%). Conclusions:The results of the study suggest that exercise interventions should be a necessary ongoing adjunct toparkinson’s diseasemedication.

Share and Cite:

Calvo, J., Fernández, I., Alonso, J., Gallego, J. and Vallejo, N. (2012) Efficacy of rehabilitation program in addition to pharmacological treatment during 8 months in Parkinson patients. Advances in Parkinson's Disease, 1, 11-16. doi: 10.4236/apd.2012.12003.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Kwakkel, G., de Goede, C.J. and van Wegen, E.E. (2007) Impact of physical therapy for Parkinson’s disease: A critical review of the literature. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 13, S478-S487. doi:10.1016/S1353-8020(08)70053-1
[2] Crizzle, A.M. and Newhouse, I.J. (2006) Is physical exercise beneficial for persons with Parkinson’s disease? Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 16, 422-425. doi:10.1097/01.jsm.0000244612.55550.7d
[3] Reuter, I., Engelhardt, M., Stecker, K. and Baas, H. (1999) Therapeutic value of exercise training in Parkinson’s disease. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 31, 1544-1549. doi:10.1097/00005768-199911000-00008
[4] Miyai, I., Fujimoto, Y., Ueda, Y.,Yamamoto, H., Nozasaki, S., Saito, T., et al. (2000) Treadmill training with body weight support: Its effect on Parkinson’s disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81, 849-852. doi:10.1053/apmr.2000.4439
[5] Dibble, L.E., Hale, T.F., Marcus, R.L., Gerber, J.P. and LaStayo, P.C. (2009) High intensity eccentric resistance training decreases bradykinesia and improves quality of life in persons with Parkinson’s disease: A preliminary study. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 15, 752-757. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2009.04.009
[6] Scandalis, T.A., Bosak, A., Berliner, J.C., Helman. L.L. and Wells, M.R. (2001) Resistance training and gait function in patients with Parkinson’s disease. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 80, 38-43. doi:10.1097/00002060-200101000-00011
[7] Bergen, J.L., Toole, T., Elliott, R.G., Wallace, B., Robinson, K. and Maitland, C.G. (2002) Aerobic exercise intervention improves aerobic capacity and movement initiation in Parkinson’s disease patients. NeuroRehabilitation, 17, 161-168.
[8] Hackney, M.E. and Earhart, G.M. (2009) Health-related quality of life and alternative forms of exercise in Parkinson disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 15, 644-648. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2009.03.003
[9] Nocera, J., Horvat, M. and Ray, C.T. (2009) Effects of home-based exercise on postural control and sensory organization in individuals with Parkinson disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 15, 742-745. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2009.07.002
[10] Hirayama, M.S., Gobbi, S., Gobbi, L.T and Stella, F. (2008) Quality of life (QoL) in relation to disease severity in Brazilian Parkinson’s patients as measured using the WHOQOL-BREF. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 46, 147-160. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2007.03.007
[11] Schmitz-Hübsch, T., Pyfer, D., Kielwein, K., Fimmers, R., Klockgether, T and Wüllner, U. (2006) Qigong exercise for the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: A randomized, controlled pilot study. Movement Disorders, 21,543-548. doi:10.1002/mds.20705
[12] J?bges, E., Spittler-Schneiders, H., Renner, C. and Hummelsheim, H. (2007) Clinical relevance of rehabilitation programs for patients with idiopathic Parkinson syndrome. II: Symptom-specific therapeutic approaches. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 13, 203-213. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2006.07.018
[13] Fahn, S. and Elton, R.L. (1987) Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale. In: Fahn, S., Marsden, C.D., Calne, D. and Goldstein, M., Eds., Recent Developments in Parkinson’s Disease, Macmillan Health Care Information, Florham Park, 153-163.
[14] Richards, M., Marder, K., Cote, L. and Mayeux, R. (1994) Interrater reliability of the unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale motor examination. Movement Disorders, 9, 89-91. doi:10.1002/mds.870090114
[15] Van Hilten, J.J., van der Zwan, A.D., Zwinderman, A.H. and Roos, R.A. (1994) Rating impairment and disability in Parkinson’s disease: Evaluation of the unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale. Movement Disorders, 9, 84-88. doi:10.1002/mds.870090113
[16] Taylor, A.H., Cable, N.T., Faulkner, G., Hillsdon, M., Narici, M. and Van Der Bij, A.K. (2004) Physical activity and older adults: A review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, 703-725. doi:10.1080/02640410410001712421
[17] Morris, M.E., Iansek, R. and Kirkwood, B. (2009) A randomized controlled trial of movement strategies compared with exercise for people with Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 24, 64-71. doi:10.1002/mds.22295
[18] Sutoo, D. and Akiyama, K. (2003) Regulation of brain function by exercise. Neurobiology of Disease, 13, 1-14. doi:10.1016/S0969-9961(03)00030-5
[19] Glendinning, D.S. and Enoka, R.M. (1994) Motor unit behavior in Parkinson’s disease. Physical Therapy, 74, 61-70.
[20] Ceravolo, M.G. (2009) Rehabilitation goals and strategies in Parkinson’s disease. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 45, 205-208.
[21] Falvo, M.J., Schilling, B.K and Earhart, G.M. (2008) Parkinson’s disease and resistive exercise: Rationale, review, and recommendations. Movement Disorders, 23, 1-11. doi:10.1002/mds.21690

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.