Share This Article:

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) ecosystem macronutrients budget on reclaimed mine sites—stand trees supply and stability

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:442KB) PP. 590-599
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.26074    4,022 Downloads   8,247 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the sources, accumulation rate and relationships between macronutrients in reclaimed mine soils (RMS) and aboveground plant biomass on external slopes of lignite mines in central Poland. The study was conducted on two different types of sites with 10-year-old Scots (Pinus sylvestris L.) pine stands located on Quaternary loamy sands (QLS) and on Tertiary acidic carboniferous sands following neutralisation (TCS). The control plot was located in the same vicinity on an external slope in a natural pine ecosystem on a Haplic Podzol in a young mixed coniferous forest habitat (NPE). The nutrient resources, apart from N, were higher in RMS than in comparable Haplic Podzols, however, N primarily accumulated in the mineral horizons. In forest soils, the main macronutrient resources were accumulated in organic horizons, which in natural soils of coniferous forest habitats constitute the main source of nutrients. The proportion of individual macronutrients accumulated in the biomass vs. pools in soil was much lower on the external slope RMS than in the natural site, which in view of the potential richness of RMS, indicated poorer sorption and utilization of macronutrients in aboveground plant biomass than in natural habitats. Other important linear correlations (p = .05) were found between the sources of nutrients in RMS and elements accumulated in biomass (most clearly in case of K, Ca and Mg), which indicates important relationships between soil and vegetation in the first stages of ecosystem development as stimulated by reclamation.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Pietrzykowski, M. (2010) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) ecosystem macronutrients budget on reclaimed mine sites—stand trees supply and stability. Natural Science, 2, 590-599. doi: 10.4236/ns.2010.26074.

References

[1] Anderson, D.W. (1977) Early stages of soil formation of glacial till mine spoils in semiarid climate. Geoderma, 19, 11-19.
[2] Assmann, E. (1970) The principles of forest yield study: Studies in the organic production, structure, increment, and yield of forest stands. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
[3] Baule, H. and Fricker, C. (197) The fertilizer treatment of forest trees. BLV-Verlagsges, Munchen.
[4] Baumann, K., Rumpelt, A., Schneider, B.U., Marschner, P. and Hüttl, R.F. (2006) Seedling biomass and element content of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra grown in sandy substrates with lignite. Geoderma, 136, 573-578
[5] Bell, L.C. (2001) Establishment of native ecosystems after mining Australian experiences across diverse biogeographic zones. Ecological Engineering, 17(2-3), 179189
[6] Bednarek, R. and Prusinkiewicz, Z. (1997) Soil geography (Geografia Gleb). PWN, Warsaw.
[7] Bendtfeldt, E.S., Burger, J.A. & Daniels, W.L. (2001) Quality of amended mine soils after sixteen years. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65, 1736-1744
[8] Bradshaw, A.D. 1983. The reconstruction of ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology, 20, 1-17
[9] Bradshow, A.D. & Chadwick, M.J. (1980) The restoration of Land. The Ecology and reclamation of derelict and degraded land. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
[10] Bradshaw, A.D. & Hüttl, R.F. 2001. Future minesite restoration involves a broader approach. Ecolgical Engineering, 17(2-3), 87-90
[11] Braun-Blanquet J. 1964. Pflanzensoziologie, Grundlage der Vegetationskunde (3 Aufl). (Wien-New York: Springer)
[12] Brożek, S. and Zwydak, M. (2003) Atlas of forest soils in Poland. Atlas Gleb Leśnych Polski, (Warsaw: CILP Press) (in Polish)
[13] Daniels, W.L., Genthner, M.H. & Hodges, R.L. (1992) Soil development in sandy tailings derived form mineral sands mining in Florida. p. 37-47. Proceedings of the 9th National Meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation (Duluth, MN, June 14-18, 1992. ASSMR, Lexington)
[14] Daniels, W.L., Alley, M.M., Zelazny, L.W., Schroeder, P. 1996. Strategies for rehabilitating prime farmland following mineral sands mining in Virginia, Annual Research Report, p. 1-20. Submitted to RGC (USA) Mineral Sands Inc.
[15] Daniels, W.L., Schroeder, P.D., Nagle, S.M., Zelazny, L.W., Alley, M.M. (1999) Reclamation of prime farmland following mineral sands mining in Virginia. p. 146-156. Proceedings of the 16th National Meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation 'Mining and reclamation for the Next Millennium', (Scottsdale, Arizona August 13 19, 1999. ASSMR, Lexington).
[16] Daniels, W.L., Evanylo, G.K., Nagle, S.M., Schmidt, J.M. (2001) Effects of biosolids loading rate and sawdust additions on row crop yield and nitrate leaching potentials in Virginia sand and gravel mine reclamation. Land Reclamation A Different Approach. p. 399 406. Proceedings of the 18th National Meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, (Albuquerque New Mexico, Jun 3-7, 2001). Vol. 2. ASSMR, 3134 Montavesta RD., Lexington, KY.
[17] Daniels, W.L., Nagle, S., Whittecar, G.R., Evenylo, G. 2002. Effect of Biosolides application on ground water nitrate-N levels in sand and gravel mine reclamation in Virginia. p. 99 – 113. Proceedings of the 19th National Meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, (Lexington, KY, June 9 – 13, 2002). ASMR. 3134 Montavesta RD.
[18] Dobrzański, B. & Zawadzki, S. 1995. Pedology (Gelboznawstwo). (Warsaw: PWRiL Press) (in Polish)
[19] Ellenberg, H. 1979. Zeigerwerte der Gefäpflanzen Mitteleuropas. Scripta Geobotanica, 9, 7-122
[20] Ellerbrock, R.H., Höhn, A., Gereke, H.H. 1999. Characterization of soil organic matter from a sandy soil in relation to management practice using FT-IR spectroscopy. Plant and Soil, 213, 55-61
[21] Fabijanowski, J. & Zarzycki, K. 1969. Spontane Vegetation als Grundlage für die Haldenaufforstung in Piaseczno bei Tarnobrzeg (Südospolen). Beiheft zu den Zeitschriften des Schweizerischen Forstvereins, 46, 271280.
[22] FAO-UNESCO 1997: Soil Map of the World Revised Legend. (Wageningen: ISRIC)
[23] Fober, H. 1993. Żywienie mineralne. (In S. Białobok, A. Boratyński & W. Bugała (Eds.), Biologia sosny zwyczajnej (pp. 182-193). Poznań-Kórnik: PAN Instytut Dendrologii, Sorous Press.)
[24] Golley, F.B. 1993. History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press)
[25] Harmsen, G.W., Kolenbrander, G.J. 1965. Soil inorganic nitrogen. In: W.V. Bartholomew & F.E. Clark (Eds.), Soil nitrogen (pp. 43-92). Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy.)
[26] Hüttl, R.F. & Weber, E. 2001. Forest ecosystem development in post-mining landscapes, a case study of the Lusatian lignite district. Naturwissenschaften, 88, 322-329
[27] Jochimsen, M.E.A. 1996. Reclamation of colliery mine spoil founded on natural succession. Water Air Soil Pollution, 91, 99-108
[28] Katzur, J. and Haubold-Rosar, M. 1996. Amelioration and reforestation of sulfurous mine soils in Lusatia (Eastern Germany). Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 91, 17-32
[29] Knoche, D., Embacher A., Katzur, J. 2002. Water and element fluxes of red oak ecosystems during stand development on post-mining sites (Lusatian Lignite District). Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 141, 219-231
[30] Krebs, Ch. J. (2001) Ecology. The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance. (Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN)
[31] Krzaklewski, W. (1982) Die Möglichkeiten der ausnutzung der natürlichen vegetation in der rekultivierung der Nachabbaugelände (Abraum-oder Bergehalden). (Paper presented at Kommunalverband Ruhrgebit Conference, Essen)
[32] Krzaklewski, W., Kowalik, S., Wójcik, J. (1997) Reclamation of acidic and toxic strata in brown coal open-cast mining. (Krakow: MONOS Press)
[33] Lieth, H. & Whittaker, R.F. 1975. Primary productivity of the biosphere. (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer Verlag)
[34] Li, R.S. & W.L. Daniels, 1994. Nitrogen accumulation and form over time in young mine soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 23, 166-172
[35] Marrs, R. and Bradshaw A.D. 1993. Primary succession on man-made wastes: the importance of resource acquisition. (In J. Miles, & D.W.H. Walton (Eds.), Primary Succession of Land (pp. 221-247). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.)
[36] Miller, A.T., Allen, H.L. and Maier, CH.A. 2006. Quantifying the coarse-root biomass of intensively managed loblolly pine plantations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36, 12-22
[37] Obmiński, Z. 1970. Zarys Ekologii. (In S. Białobok (Eds.), Nasze Drzewa Leśne, Monografie Popularno-naukowe, Sosna Zwyczajna (Pinus silvestris L.) (pp. 203-231). Warszawa-Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.)
[38] Odum, E. 1971. Fundamentals of ecology (3rd Ed.). (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.)
[39] Odum, H.T. & Odum, B. 2003. Concepts and methods of ecological engineering. Ecological Engineering, 20, 339-361
[40] Orzeł, S., Socha, J., Forgiel, M. Ochał, W. 2005. Biomass and annual production of mixed stands of the Niepołomice Forest. Act. Sci. Pol., Silv. Colendar. Rat. Ind. Lignar., 4(2), 63-79 (In Polish, English summary)
[41] Ostrowska, S., Gawlinski, Z., Szczubialka, Z. 1991. Procedures for soil and plants analysis. (Warsaw: Institute of Environmental Protection) (In Polish)
[42] Pietch, W.H.O. 1996. Recolonization and development of vegetation on mine spoils following brown coal mining in Lusatia. Water Air Soil Pollution, 91, 1-15.
[43] Pietrzykowski, M. 2005. Characteristics of selected features of arborescent vegetation in reclaimed areas and in areas left for succession as exemplified by experimental plots in the Szczakowa sand mine excavation. Acta Agr. Silv. ser. Silv., 63, 1-26 (In Polish, English summary)
[44] Pietrzykowski, M. 2006. Properties of soils formed on reclaimed areas and areas left for succession on post-exploitation sand filing excavation. Soil Science Annual, 57(3/4), 97-105 (In Polish, English summary)
[45] Pietrzykowski, M. and Krzaklewski, W. 2006. Functionality assessment of soil quality index (ITGL) and vascular plant ecological indicator for site quality diagnosis in a sand mine excavation. Acta Sci. Pol. Silv. Colendar. Rat. Ind. Lignar, 5(1), 47-56
[46] Pietrzykowski, M. and Krzaklewski, W. 2007a. An assessment of energy efficiency in reclamation to forest. Ecological Engineering, 30, 341-348
[47] Pietrzykowski, M. and Krzaklewski, W. 2007b. Soil organic matter, C and N accumulation during natural succession and reclamation in an opencast sand quarry (southern Poland), Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 53(5), 473-483
[48] Puchalski, T. and Prusinkiewicz, Z. 1975. Ecological background for forest site classification. (Warsaw: PWRiL Press) (in Polish)
[49] Roberts, J.A., Daniels, W.L., Bell, J.C., Burger, J.A. (1988). Early stages of mine soil genesis in a southwest Virginia spoil lithosequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 52, 716-723
[50] Rodrigue, J.A., Burger, J.A. Oderwald, R.G. 2002. Forest productivity and commercial value of pre-law reclaimed mined land in the eastern United States. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 19(3), 106-114
[51] Rumpel, C., Kögel-Knabner, I., Hüttl, R.F. 1999. Organic matter composition and degree of humification on lignite-rich mine soils under a chronosequence of pine. Plant and Soil, 213, 161-168
[52] Schaaf, W. 2001. What can element budgets of false-time series tell us about ecosystem development on post-lignite mining sites? Ecological Engineering, 17 (2-3), 241-252
[53] Shrestha, R.K., and Rattan L. 2006. Ecosystem carbon budgeting and soil carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil. Environment International, 32 (6), 781-796
[54] Urbanska, K.M., Webb, N.R., Edwards, P.J. (Eds.) 1997. Restoration Ecology and Sustainable development. (New York: Cambridge University Press)
[55] Van Reeuwijk, L.P. 1995. Procedures for soil analysis, (5th Ed.), Technical Paper 9, (Wageningen: ISRIC, FAO)
[56] Wardle, D.A., Bardgett, R.D., Klironomos, J.N., Setälä, H., Van der Putten, W. H., Wall D.H. (2004). Ecological Linkages between aboveground and underground biota. Science, 304, 1629-1633
[57] Wali, M.K. 1999. Ecological succession and the rehabilitation of disturbed terrestrial ecosystems. Plant and Soil, 213, 195-220.
[58] Wali, M.K., Freeman, P.G. 1973. Ecology of some mined areas in North Dakota. (In M.K. Wali (Eds.), Some environmental aspects of strip mining in North Dakota. Education Series 5, (pp. 25-47). Grand Froks: North Dakota Geological Survey.)
[59] West, T.O. & Wali, M.K. 2002. Modeling regional carbon dynamics and soil erosion in disturbed and rehabilitated ecosystems as affected by land use and climate. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 138, 41-163
[60] Wiegleb, G. & Felinks, 2001. Primary succession in post-mining landscapes of Lower Lusatia chance or necessity. Ecological Engineering, 17 (2-3), 199-217
[61] Woś, A. 1999. Climate of Poland (Klimat Polski). (Warsaw: PWN Press) (in Polish)

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.