Share This Article:

Environmental and Mineralogical Studies of the Sabkhas Soil at Ismailia—Suez Roadbed, Southern of Suez Canal District, Egypt

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:8007KB) PP. 165-181
DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2012.23017    6,196 Downloads   10,738 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Eight surface sabkha soils samples were collected from Ismailia—Suez roadbed, southwestern of Suez Canal district. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses were conducted using grain size; X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Grain size analysis indicates high contents of fine sand and mud as well as presence of salts. X-ray diffraction; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and EDAX tool clarified that the sabkha soils are enriched by quartz, sulfate minerals (gypsum, anhydrite), carbonate minerals (calcite-dolomite-aragonite), chlorides (halite and bischofite), and clay minerals. The results elucidate that the appearance of sabkha deposits and their distribution in the study area are controlled mainly by the content of water soluble salts through parent materials; ground water table; subsurface structural; and physiographic features for instance surface relief or topography; and human activity.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. M. El-Omla and H. A. Aboulela, "Environmental and Mineralogical Studies of the Sabkhas Soil at Ismailia—Suez Roadbed, Southern of Suez Canal District, Egypt," Open Journal of Geology, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2012, pp. 165-181. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2012.23017.

References

[1] W. Sanford and W. Wood, “Hydrology of the Coastal Sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates,” Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2001, pp. 358-366. doi:10.1007/s100400100137
[2] W. Akili, “On Sabkha Sands of Eastern Saudi Arabia,” Proceedings of the Geotechnical Problems in Saudi Arabia Symposium, Riyadh, 11-13 May 1981, pp. 775-793.
[3] W. Fookes and M. Rice, “The Influence of Ground and Groundwater Chemistry on Construction in the Middle East,” Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology London, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1985, pp. 101-128. doi:10.1144/GSL.QJEG.1985.018.02.01
[4] G. Evans, “Coastal and Near Shore Sedimentation: A Comparison of Clastic and Carbonate Deposition,” Proceedings of Geological Society of London, Vol. 81, No. 3, 1970, pp. 493-508. doi:10.1016/S0016-7878(70)80010-4
[5] J. Hansom and D. McGlashan, “Scotland’s Coast Understanding Past and Present Processes for Sustainable Management,” Scottish Geographical Journal, Vol. 120, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 99-116. doi:10.1080/00369220418737195
[6] A. Abdallah and F. Abdel Hady, “Geology of Sadat Area, Gulf of Suez,” Journal of Geology, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1966, pp. 1-22.
[7] E. El Shazly, M. Abdel Hady, A. Salman, M. Morsy, M. El Rakaiby, I. El Assy, A. Kamel, W. Meshref, A. Ammar and M. Meleik, “Geological Investigations of the Suez Canal Zone,” Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Cairo, 1975, p. 54.
[8] M. El Ebiary, “Shallow Subsurface Geological and Geophysical Studies in Lake Temsah, Suez Canal Area, Egypt,” M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Tanta University Egypt, Tanta, 1981, 200p.
[9] H. Afify, “Studies on Water Resources and Pollution in Some Areas of the Suez Canal Province, Egypt,” M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 2002, 189p.
[10] F. El Fawal, “Sedimentology and the Quaternary Southwest of Ismailia and Its Chronostratigraphy West of the Suez Canal,” Proceedings of 3rd Conference Geology of Sinai and Development, Ismailia, 1992, pp. 141-152.
[11] H. Aboulela, “A Study on the Tectonic Activity and Seismicity in the Suez Canal Region,” M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 1994, 133p.
[12] H. Geriesh, “Improvement of Drinking Water Quality in the New Villages, East of Suez Canal Navigation Route, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Using Artificial Ground Water Recharge Techniques,” Al-Azhar Bulletin of Science, Vol. 15, 1999, pp. 37-54.
[13] E. El Shazly, M. Abdel Hady, M. El Shazly, M. El Ghawaby, J. El Kassas, A. Salman and M. Morsy, “Geological and Ground Water Potential Studies of El Ismailia Master Plan Study Area,” Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Cairo, 1975, p. 45.
[14] F. Ramadan, “Sedimentological Studies on the bottom Sediments of the Suez Canal,” M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 1984, 185p.
[15] M. Omaran, “Geological Studies of Shabraweet Area, Suez Canal, Egypt,” M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 1989, 135p.
[16] H. Geriesh, “Hydrogeological Investigations of West Ismailia Area, Egypt,” M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 1989, 210p.
[17] R. Said, “The Geology of Egypt,” Elsevier Pub Co., Amsterdam, 1962, p. 377.
[18] A. Abdallah, M. Abdel Aal and M. Hussein, “Integrated Surface and Subsurface Structural Study of the Area between Mediterranean and Eastern Desert, Egypt,” EGPC’s Exploration & Production Conference, Cairo, 1998, pp. 1-12.
[19] M. El Masry, “Geology and Mineralogy of Evaporites and Evaporite-Bearing Sediments in the Bitter Lakes, Egypt,” M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 1992, p. 85.
[20] R. Folk, “Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks,” Hempill Publishing Co., Austin, 1974, p. 182.
[21] G. Brown, “The X-Ray Identification and Crystal Structure of Clay Minerals,” Mineral Society, London, 1961, 544p.
[22] W. Krumbein and F. Pettijohn, “Manual of Sedimentology petrography,” Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., New York, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1938, 549p.
[23] F. Mees, “Petrological Studies of Saline Deposits of a Perennial Saline Lake and a Dry Lake Basin, and of Calcareous Deposits of Small Freshwater Basins,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ghent, Ghent, 1998.
[24] D. Shearman, “Halite in Sabkha Environments,” In: W. E. Dean and B.C. Schreiber, Eds., Marine Evaporites, SEPM, Tulsa, 1978, pp. 430-442.
[25] A. Perez, A. Luzon, R. Roc, M. Soria, M. Mayayo and J. Sanchez, “Sedimentary Facies Distribution and Genesis of a Recent Carbonate-Rich Saline Lake: Gallocanta Lake, Iberian Chain, NE Spain,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 148, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 185-202. doi:10.1016/S0037-0738(01)00217-2
[26] F. Fayazi, “Evaporates of the Howze Soltan Lake Basin,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 1991, 185p.
[27] M. Rosen, “Sedimentological and Geochemical Constraints on the Hydrologic Evolution of Bristol Dry Lake, California, USA,” Paleogeography and Paleoecology, Vol. 84, No. 1-4, 1991, pp. 229-257. doi:10.1016/0031-0182(91)90046-T
[28] M. Rosen, “The Importance of Groundwater in Playas: A Review of Playa Classifications and the Sedimentology and Hydrology of Playas,” Geological Society of America Special Publication, Vol. 289, 1994, pp. 1-18.
[29] G. Nadson, “Die Mikrooganismen als Geologische Faktoren,” Botanisches Centralblatt, Vol. 96, 1903, pp. 591-593.
[30] G. Nadson, “Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Bakteriogenen Kalkablagerungen,” Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie, Vol. 19, 1928, pp. 154-164.
[31] W. Bavendam, “Die Mikrobiologische Kalkfallung in der Tropischen See,” Archiv fuer Mikrobiologie, Vol. 3, 1932, pp. 205-216.
[32] P. Bush, “Some Aspects of the Diagenetic History of the Sabkha in Abu Dhabi, Persian Gulf,” In: B. H. Purser, Ed., The Persian Gulf, Springer, Berlin, 1973, p.265.
[33] W. Krumbein, “On the Precipitation of Aragonite on the Surface of Marine Bacteria,” Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 61, No. 4, 1974, p. 167. doi:10.1007/BF00602591
[34] W. Krumbein, “Photolithographic Chemoorganotrophic Activity of Bacteria and Algae as Related to Beach Rock Formation and Degradation (Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai),” Geomicrobiology Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1979, pp. 139-198. doi:10.1080/01490457909377729
[35] W. Krumbein and F. Pettijohn, “Manual of Sedimentology Petrography,” Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., New York, 1958, 549p.
[36] M. Dames, “Subsurface Surveys for Industrial Complex at Yanbu,” Unpublished Technical Report, 1976, p. 960.
[37] H. Chafetz and R. Folk, “Travertines: Depositional Morphology and the Bacterially Constructed Constituents,” Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1984, pp. 289-316.
[38] S. Castanier, “Microbiogéologie: Processes et Modalités de la Carbonatogenèse Bactérienne,” Ph.D Thesis, University of Nantes, Nantes,1987, pp.255.
[39] J. Adolphe, A. Hourimeche, F. Loubière, J. Paradas and F. Soleilhavoup, “Les Formations Carbonatées d’Origine Bacterienne. Formations Continentales d’Afrique du Nord,” Société Géologique de France Bulletin, Vol. 8, 1989, pp. 52-62.
[40] H. Chafetz, “Bacterially Induced Precipitates of Calcium Carbonate and Lithification of Microbial Mats,” In: W. Krumbein, M. Paterson and J. Lucas, Eds., Bioestablization of Sediments, Bibliotheks und Informations System der Universit?t Oldenburg, Oldenburg, 1994, pp. 149-163.
[41] A. Kendall and G. Harwood, “Marine Evaporites: arid Shorelines and Basins,” In: H. G. Reading, Ed., Sedimentary Environments: Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy, Blackwell Science, London, 1997, pp. 281-324.
[42] S. Castanier, J. Perthuisot, M. Matrat and J. Morvan, “The Salt Ooids of Berre Salt Works (Bouches du Rhone, France); The Role of Bacteria in Salt Crystallization,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 125, No. 1-2, 1999, pp. 9-21. doi:10.1016/S0037-0738(98)00144-4
[43] C. Vasconcelos, J. McKencie, D. Bernasconi, A. Gruyic and J. Tien, “Microbial mediation as a Possible Mechanism for Natural Dolomite Formation at Low Temperatures,” Nature, Vol. 377, No. 6546, 1995, pp. 220-222. doi:10.1038/377220a0
[44] C. Vasconcelos and J. McKencie, “Microbial Mediation of Modern Dolomite Precipitation and Diagenesis under Anoxic Conditions (Lagoa Vermeha, Rio de Janeiro Brazil),” Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 67, 1997, pp. 378-391.
[45] C. Kendall, A. Patrick and D. Skipwith, “Recent Algal Mats of a Persian Gulf Lagoon,” Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 38, No.4, 1968, pp. 1040-1058.
[46] A. Kendall and G. Harwood, “Marine Evaporites: Arid Shorelines and Basins,” In: H. G. Reading, Ed., Sedimentary Environments: Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy, Blackwell Science, London, 1997, pp. 281-324.
[47] R. Kalin and T. Elliot, “Sustainability of groundwater Resources in Water-Scarce Regions: From Microto MacroScales,” Natural Resources & Environment Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2001, p. 56.
[48] K. Glennie, “Desert Sedimentary Environments,” In: D. Henningsen, Ed., Developments in Sedimentology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969.
[49] C. Young and H. Krouse, “The Origin of Sulphates in Castleguard Cave, Columbia Ice Fields, Canada,” In N. Cauer and S. Chaudhuri, Eds., Isotopes in the Sedimentary Cycle, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, Vol. 65, 1987, pp. 427-433.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.