Share This Article:

Degradation Behavior of High Chromium Sodium-Modified A356.0-Type Al-Si-Mg Alloy in Simulated Seawater Environment

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1335KB) PP. 535-551
DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.106041    3,264 Downloads   4,694 Views   Citations


The effect of multiple-step thermal ageing treatment (MSTAT) on the corrosion characteristics of A356.0-type Al-Si-Mg alloy in simulated seawater has been studied. The MSTAT treatment also consists of Double Thermal Ageing (DTAT- T7), Single Thermal Ageing (STAT- T6), Step- Quenching and Ageing (SQA). The corrosion of the thermal treated samples was characterized by electrochemical Potentiodynamics polarization techniques consisting of linear polarization and chronopotentiometric method using the fit Tafel plot. Generally, from the linear polarization, the corrosion rate decreases at all temperatures with the ageing time. The corrosion behavior of the DTAT and SQA Al-Si-Mg alloy in the simulated seawater showed better resistance than the STAT Al-Si-Mg alloy. Samples in the SQA-STAT have improved corrosion resistance than the SQA-DTAT one. The chronopotentiometric corrosion study of some selected samples indicates a decrease in the corrosion resistance with open circuit potential exposure time. Consequently, the form of corrosion in the studied Al-Si-Mg alloy are slightly uniform and predominantly pitting corrosion as obtained from the SEM study. The pits diameter were found to range from 30-50μm.

Cite this paper

M. Abdulwahab, I. Madugu, S. Yaro and A. Popoola, "Degradation Behavior of High Chromium Sodium-Modified A356.0-Type Al-Si-Mg Alloy in Simulated Seawater Environment," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 10 No. 6, 2011, pp. 535-551. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.106041.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Leo, P., Cerri, E., 2003, “Silicon Particle Damage in a thioxocast A356 Alminium Alloy.” Met Sci and Tech, Teksid Aluminiums Journal, Vol. 21, No.1, pp. 27-31.
[2] El Sebaie, O. Samuel, A. M., Samuel, F. H., Doty, H. W., 2008, “The effects of Mischmetal Cooling rate and heat treatment on the eutectic Si particle Characteristics of A319.1, A356.2 and A413.1 Al-Si casting alloys.” Mater Sci and Eng A480, pp.342-355.
[3] Haghshenas, M., Zarei-Hanzaki, A., Fatemi-Varzaneh, S. M., 2008, “The effects of thermomechanical parameters on the microstructure of thixocast A356 Aluminium alloy.” Mater Sci and Eng A 480, pp.68-74.
[4] Hassan, S. B., Aigbodion, V. S., 2009, “The effect of thermal ageing on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si-Fe/Mg alloys.” J alloys and compds, 486, pp.309-314.
[5] Caceres, C. H., Selling, B. I., 1997, “Casting defects and tensile properties of an Al- Si-Mg casting alloy.” Mater Sci and Eng A 220, pp.109 – 116.
[6] Ejiofor, J. U., Reddy, R. G., 1997, JOM, 49, 31.
[7] Nwajagu, C. O., 19994, “Foundry Theory and Practice” ABC Publishers Ltd, Enugu, Nigeria
[8] Hadley, S. W., Das, S., Miller, J. W., 2000, “Aluminium Research and Development (R & D) for automotive uses and the Dept. of Energy’s Role.” An R and D report/findings for the Energy Division, office of advanced automotive technologies US (ORNL/TM-1999 /157) pp. 1-7
[9] Feng Wang, Jishan Zhang, Baiqing Xiong, Yongan Zhang, 2009, “Effect of Fe and Mn additions on microstructure and Mechanical Properties of spray-deposited Al 20Si – 3Cu-1Mg alloy.” Mater Charecter, 60, pp.384-388.
[10] Hamani, M. S., Hamidane, F., Djouama, M. C., 2007, “Contribution to assessment of structural Hardening of the solid solution of AS7G06 alloy.” Research Journal of Applied Sciences 2 (1), pp.105-110.
[11] Vijendra, Singh 2007, “Heat treatment of metals.” Standard publisher Distributors, Delhi,
[12] Lopez Ismeli Alfonso, Giantitemoc Maldonado Zepeda, Jose Gonzalo Gonzalez Reyes, Ariosto Medina Flores, Juan Serrate Rodriguez, Luis Bejar Gomez, 2007, “TEM Mictrosctructural characterization of mett-spun aged Al–6Si-3Cu x Mg alloys.”Mater character, 58, pp.509-518.
[13] Juang, Shueiwan H., Wu Shyh – Ming, 2008, “Study on Mechanical properties of A356 alloys enhanced with preformed thioxotropic structure.” J. Marine Sci and Tech, Vol. 16, No 4, pp. 271-274.
[14] Tash, M., Samuel, F. H., Mucciardi, F., Doty, H. W., 2007, “Effect of metallurgical Parameters on the hardness and microstructural characterization of as-cast and heattreated 356 and 319 Aluminium alloys. Mater Sci and Eng A443, pp.185-201.
[15] Haghshenas, M., Zarei-Hanzaki, A., Fatemi-Varzaneh, S. M., Abeli, H., 200b, “Hot deformation behaviour of thixocast A356 aluminium alloy during compression at elevated temperature, www. P_Ha_400.
[16] Kliauga, A. M., Vieira, E. A., Ferrante, M., 2008, “The influence of impurity level and tin addition on the ageing heat treatment of the 356 class alloy.” Mater Sci and Eng A 480, pp.5-16.
[17] Johan Zandar, Rolf Sandstrom, 2008, “One parameter model for strength properties of hardenable aluminium alloys.” Materials and Design, vol 29, pp.1540-1548.
[18] Thompson, S., Cockcroft, S. L., Wells, M. A., 2004, “Advanced Light metals casting development: Solidification of aluminium alloy A356.” J. Mater Sci. and Tech, Vol. 20, pp.194-200.
[19] Jose Luis Cavazos, Rafel Colas, 2001, “Precipitation in a heat-treated aluminium alloy cooled at different rates.” Mater Charact, 47, pp.175- 179.
[20] Evren Tan, Bilgehan Ogel, 2007, “ Influence of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of AA6066 alloy.” Turkish J. Eng. Env. Sci., 31, pp. 53-60.
[21] Khomamizah, F., Ghasemi, A., 2004, “Evaluation of Quality Index of A-356 aluminium alloy by microstructural analysis.” Scientia Iranica, Vol. 11, No 4, pp.336 -391.
[22] Daniel Henkel, Alan W. Pense, 2002, “Structure and properties of Engineering Materials.” 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill Series, New York, pp. 292-294.
[23] Yucei Birol, 2009, “Response to artificial ageing of dentritic and globular Al-7%Si- Mg alloys.” J. Alloy and Compds, 484, pp.164-167.
[24] Hirth, S. M., Marshall, G. J., Court, S. A., Lloyd, D. J., 2001, “Effect of Si on the ageing behavior and formability of aluminium alloys based on AA6016.” Mater Sci and Eng A319-321, pp.453-456.
[25] Fontana, M. G., Greene, N.D., 1987, “Corrosion Engineering McGraw-Hill book Company, New York, pp. 8-29.
[26] Rollason, E. C., 1964, “Metallurgy for Engineers.” Reprinted Edition, Richard Clay and Company Ltd., Bungay, pp.304 – 306.
[27] Avner, S. H., 1974, “Introduction to Physical Metallurgy.” 2nd Edition McGraw-Hill Inc. London, pp. 481-497.
[28] Scamans, G.M., Hunter, J.A., Holroyd, N.J.H., 1989, “Corrosion of aluminium – a new approach.” Proc. of 8th Inter. Light metals Congress, Leoban Wien, pp. 699-705,
[29] Czechowski, M., 2007, “Effect of anodic polarization on stress corrosion cracking of some aluminium alloy.” Adv. Mater Sci, Vol. 7, No1(11), pp.13-20.
[30] Abdulwahab, M., “The effect of Mn and Cr on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Al-Si-Fe-MnCr alloy in 0.5M HCl solution.” M.Sc thesis, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
[31] Fang Hua-Chan, Chen Kang-hua, Zhang Zhou, Zhu Changjun, 2008, “Effect of Yb additions on microstructures and properties 7A60 aluminium alloy.” Transactions of nonferrous metals society of China, 18, pp.28-32.
[32] Xue, G., Ding, J., 1990, J. Appl. Surf. Sci., 40, pp.327.
[33] Xue, G., Ding, J., Lu, P., Dong, J., 1991, J. Phys. Chem., 95, 7380.
[34] Tornkvist, C., Thiery, D., Bergam, J., Liedberg, B., Leygraf, C., 1989, J. Electrochem. Soc., 136, 58.
[35] Wang Zi-Xing, Zhang Yong-an, Zhu Bao-hong, Liu Hong-Wei, Wang fang, Xong, Baiquing, 2006, “Tensile and high cycle fatique properties of spray formed Al10.8 Zn2.9Mg 1.9Cu alloys after two-stage ageing treatment.” Transaction of the nonferrous Metal Society of China, 16, pp.802-812.
[36] Li Jin-Feng, Peng Zhuo-wei, Li Chao- Xing, JiaZthi-qiang, Chen Wen-jing, Zheng Zi-qiao, 2008, “Mechanical properties, corrosion behaviour and microstructures of 7075 aluminium alloy with various ageing treatments.” Transaction of the Nonferrous Metal Society of China, 18, pp.755- 762.
[37] Wang, D., Ni, D. R., Ma, Z. Y., 2008, “Effect of pre-strain and two-step ageing on microstructure and SCC of 7050 alloy.” Mater Sci and Eng A 494, pp.360 - 366.
[38] Feng Wang, Baiqing Xiong, Yongan Zhang, Baohong Zhu, Hongwei, Zixing Wang, Xiaoqing He, 2008, “Microstructure and Mech. Properties of spray-deposited Al 10.8Zn-2.8Mg-1.9 Cu alloy after two-step ageing treatment at 110℃ and 150℃. Mater Character, 58, pp.82-86.
[39] Daimon K. Heller, William G. Fahrenholtz, Mathew J. O’Keefe, 2010, “The effect of post-treatment time and temperature on cerium-based Conversion coatings on Al 2024-T3.” Corrosion Science, 52, pp.360-368.
[40] Risanti, D. D., Yin, M., Rivera Diazdel Castillo, P.E.J., Vau der Zwang, S., 2009, “A systematic study of the effect of interrupted ageing conditions on the strength and toughness development of AA6061.” Mater Sci and Eng A523, pp.99-111.
[41] Bhatnagar, P. P., Banerjee, T., 1960, “Aluminium-Silicon alloy.” Transactions: India Institute of Metals, T. P. 43, Pp.219-230.
[42] Brooks, C. R., 1982, “Heat treatment, structure and properties of Nonferrous alloys, ASM, Ohio, USA.
[43] Abdulrahman, A. S., Aigbodion, V. S., “The effect of ageing temperature on the corrosion characteristics of Al-Si-Cu alloy in concentrations of HCl acid.” J. Eng Sci and Techn, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp.82-86.
[44] Khoshnaw, F. M., Gardi, R. H., 2007, “Effect of ageing time and temperature on exfoliation corrosion of aluminium alloys 2024-T3 and 7075-T6.” Mater and Corrosion, Vol. 58, No 5, pp.345-347.
[45] Madugu, I. A., Abdulwahab, M., 2006, “The effect of Cr addition on the mechanical properties of Al-Si-Fe alloy.” J. Res. Eng, Vol 3, No 4, pp. 29-33.
[46] Osorio Wislei, R., Jose E. Spinelli, Celia M.A. Freire, Marganta B. Cardona, Amauri Garcia, 2007, “The role of Al2Cu and its dendritic refinement on surface corrosion resistance of hypoeutectic Al-Cu alloys immersed in H2SO4.” J. Alloys and compds 443, pp.87- 93.
[47] Andreatta, F., Terryn, H., De Wit, J. H. W., 2004, “Corrosion behaviour of different tempers of AA7075 aluminium alloy.” Electrochem Acta, 49, pp.2851-2862.
[48] Zaki Ahmed, Abdul Aleem, B. J., 2002, “Degradation of aluminium metal matrix composites in salt water and its control.” Mater and Design, 23, pp.173-180.
[49] Burleigh, T. D., Rennick, R. C., Bovard, F. S., 1993, Corrosion, 49, 683.
[50] Wloka Joachim, Theo Hack, Sannakaisa Virtanen, 2007, “Influence of temper and surface condition on the exfoliation behavior of high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys.” Corrosion science, 49, pp.1437-1449.
[51] Singh Preet, M., Lewandowski John, J., 1995, “Effects of heat treatment on stress corrosion cracking of a discontinuously reinforced aluminium 7XXX alloy during slow strain testing.” Scripta Mater, Vol. 33, No 9, pp.13930-1399.
[52] Ramgopal, T., Gouma, P. I., Franke, G. S., 2002, “ Role of grain-boundary precipitates and solute depleted zone on the intergranular corrosion of aluminium alloy 7150.” Corrosion, Vol. 58, No 8, pp.687-697.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.