Effects of integrated nitrogen fertilization and irrigation systems, rootstocks, and cultivars on productivity, water and nitrogen consumption, and mineral nutrition of pear

DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.32030   PDF   HTML     4,810 Downloads   8,095 Views   Citations

Abstract

Water and nitrogen (N) management are key factors for sustainable pear production in many areas. Effects of integrated N fertilization and irrigation systems, rootstocks, and cultivars on pear (Pyrus communis) mineral nutrition, irrigation water and N consumption, and fruit productivity were investigated on a fine sandy loam soil at Hood River, Oregon from 2005 through 2007. Nitrogen application reduced to 80% of the current broadcast application rate and fertigated in five equal split applications could supply bearing pear trees with adequate N nutrition without reducing soil N reserves. Shifting from the broadcast of dry N fertilizer on soil surface and micro sprinkler irrigation system (BSS) to the split N fertigation and drip irrigation system (FDS) did not affect tree growth, fruit yield, or fruit size of pear. However, FDS produced more Bartlett fruit in color categories of 390 - 417 and 417 - 496 nm than BSS. Irrigation water consumption was reduced by 42.0% to 78.3%, but water use efficiency was enhanced by 51.0% to 264.2% with FDS relative to BSS. Split N fertigation and drip irrigation system may be used as an alternate N fertilization and irrigation system on bearing pear orchards to reduce irrigation water and N consumption in Hood River and other similar areas.

Share and Cite:

Yin, X. , Huang, X. and Roux, J. (2012) Effects of integrated nitrogen fertilization and irrigation systems, rootstocks, and cultivars on productivity, water and nitrogen consumption, and mineral nutrition of pear. Agricultural Sciences, 3, 257-267. doi: 10.4236/as.2012.32030.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Bi, G.H., Scagel, C.F. and Harkess, R. (2008) Rate of nitrogen fertigation during vegetative growth and spray applications of urea in the fall alters growth and flowering of florists’ hydrangeas. HortScience, 43, 472-477.
[2] Watershed Professionals Network. (1999) Oregon Watershed Assessment Manual. WPN,
[3] Fereres, E., Goldhamer, D.A. and Parsons, L.R. (2003) Irrigation water management of horticultural crops. HortScience, 38, 1036-1042.
[4] Bryla, D.R., Dickson, E., Shenk, R., Johnson, R.S., Crisosto, C.H. and Trout, T.J. (2005) Influence of irrigation method and scheduling on patterns of soil and tree water status and its relation to yield and fruit quality in peach. HortScience, 40, 2118-2124.
[5] Gelly, M., Recasens, I., Girona, J., Mata, M., Arbones, A., Rufat, J. and Marsal, J. (2004) Effects of stage II and postharvest deficit irrigation on peach quality during maturation and after cold storage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84, 561-568. doi:10.1002/jsfa.1686
[6] Treeby, M.T., Henriod, R.E., Bevington, K.B., Milne, D.J. and Storey, R. (2007) Irrigation management and rootstock effects on navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] fruit quality. Agricultural Water Management, 91, 24-32. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2007.04.002
[7] Camp, C.R. (1998) Subsurface drip irrigation: A review. Trans. ASAE, 41, 1353-1367.
[8] Proebsting, E.L., Drake, S.R. and Evans, R.G. (1984) Irrigation management, fruit quality, and storage life of apple. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 109, 229-232.
[9] Klein, I., Meimon, A. and Skedi, D. (1999) Drip nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertigation of ‘Spadona’ pear. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 22, 489-499. doi:10.1080/01904169909365646
[10] Haynes, R.J. (1985) Principles of fertilizer use for trickle irrigated crops. Fertilizer Research, 6, 235-255. doi:10.1007/BF01048798
[11] Huang, L., Shen, G., Qian, X., Gu, H. and Qiu, Z. (2008) Impacts of drip fertilizer irrigation on nitrogen use efficiency and total nitrogen loss load. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 24, 49-53.
[12] Sanchez, J.E., Edson, C.E., Bird, G.W., Whalon, M.E., Willson, T.C., Harwood, R.R., Kizilakaya, K., Nugent, J.E., Klein, W., Middleton, A., Loudon, T.L., Mutch, D.R. and Scrimger, J. (2003) Orchard floor and nitrogen management influences soil and water quality and tart cherry yields. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 128, 277-284.
[13] Hart, J., Righetti, T., Stevens, B., Stebbins, B., Lombard, P., Burkhart, D. and Van Buskirk, P. (1997) Pear fertilizer guideline. Ext. Serv. Publ. Multimedia Catalog Ser. No. FG 59-E. Oregon State University, Corvallis.
[14] Worley, R.E., Daniel, J.W., Dutcher, J.D. Harrison, K.A. and Mullinix, B.G. (1995) A long-term comparison of broadcast application versus drip fertigation of nitrogen for mature pecan trees. HortTechnology, 5, 43-47.
[15] Jury, W.A., Gardner, W.R., and Gardner, W.H. (1991) Soil physics. 5th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 122-123.
[16] Jensen, M.E., Wright, J.L. and Pratt, B.J. (1971) Estimating soil moisture depletion from climate, crop, and soil data. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 14, 954-959.
[17] Mehlich, A. (1984) Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 15, 1409-1416. doi:10.1080/00103628409367568
[18] Gavlak, R.G., Horneck, D.A. and Miller, R.O. (1994) Plant, soil and water reference methods for the western region. Western Reg. Ext. Publ.125. University of Alaska, Fairbanks.
[19] Watson, M.E. and Brown, J.R. (1998) pH and lime requirement. In: Brown, J.R., Ed., Recommended Chemical Soil Test Procedures for the North Central Region. NCR Research Publication, University of Missouri, Columbia, 13-16.
[20] Combs, S.M. and Nathan, M.V. (1998) Soil organic matter. In: Brown, J.R., Ed., Recommended Chemical Soil Test Procedures for the North Central Region, NCR Research Publication, University of Missouri, Columbia, 53- 58.
[21] Costa, J.M. Chaves, M.M. and Ortuno, M.F. (2007) Deficit irrigation as a strategy to save water: Physiology and potential application to horticulture. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 49, 1421-1434. doi:10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00556.x
[22] Brocic, Z. Jovanovic, Z. Stikic, R. Vucelic-Radovic, B. and Mojevic, M. (2009) Partial root-zone drying: New approach for potato irrigation. Cereal Research Communications, 37, 229-232.
[23] Leece, D.R. (1976) Diagnosis of nutritional disorders of fruit trees by leaf and soil analyses and biochemical indices. Journal of the Australian Institute of agricultural Science, 42, 3-19.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.