Share This Article:

Vitamin E Bioavailability: Past and Present Insights

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:356KB) PP. 1088-1096
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210146    6,823 Downloads   11,343 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Over the past decades several studies have investigated the importance of an adequate vitamin E status to sustain both animal health and production in dairy cows. Cow milk is considered as a remarkable source of bioactive components promoting human health, which has renewed interest in the effects of vitamin E supplementation on its nutritional value, sensory quality and shelf life. Thus, defining relative bioavailability, utilisation and transfer into milk of different vitamin E formulations is particularly important to assess the adequate levels of supplementation for animal health and milk quality. In nature vitamin E is present under one isomeric form, RRR α-tocopherol; when α-tocopherol is synthesized chemically, a racemic mixture of 8 possible isomers of α-tocopherol in equimolar concentrations is produced (all-rac α-tocopherol). The different stereoisomers have different biopotencies in humans and livestock; the conversion factor between RRR and all-rac vitamin E was estimated by early studies on the basis of the rat foetal resorption bioassay, and then extended to other species. Recent advances on the distribution of vitamin E stereoisomers in plasma and tissues have highlighted the need to formulate new conversion factors in dairy cows as well as in humans. On account of this, the present article aims to consider past and recent data related to vitamin E in dairy cow nutrition.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

S. Vagni, F. Saccone, L. Pinotti and A. Baldi, "Vitamin E Bioavailability: Past and Present Insights," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 10, 2011, pp. 1088-1096. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.210146.

References

[1] L. R. McDowell, S. N. Williams, N. Hidiroglou, C. A. Njeru, G. M. Hill, L. Ochoa and N. S. Wilkinson, “Vitamin E Supplementation for the Ruminant,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 60, No. 3-4, 1996, pp. 273-296. doi:10.1016/0377-8401(96)00982-0
[2] W. P. Weiss, “Requirements of Fat-Soluble Vitamins for Dairy Cows: A Review,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 81, No. 9, 1998, pp. 2493-2501. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)70141-9
[3] R. D. Allison and R. A. Laven, “Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on the Health and Fertility of Dairy Cows: A Review,” Veterinary Record, Vol. 147, No. 25, 2000, pp. 703-708.
[4] A. Baldi, “Vitamin E in Dairy Cows,” Livestock Production Science, Vol. 98, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 117-122. doi:10.1016/j.livprodsci.2005.10.004
[5] N. Moyo, M. Nielen, C. Kruitwagen and A. C. Beynen, “Vitamin E Supplementation and Udder Health: A Meta-Analysis,” In: H. Hogeveen, Ed., Mastitis in Dairy Production. Current Knowledge and Future Solutions, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, 2005, pp. 159-165.
[6] National Research Council, “Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle,” 7th Edition, National Academy Press, Washington DC, 2001, pp. 167-177.
[7] H. Scherf, L. J. Machlin, T. M. Frye, B. A. Krautmann and S. N. Williams, “Vitamin E Biopotency: Comparison of Various ‘Natural-Derived’ and Chemically Synthesized Alpha-Tocopherols,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 59, No. 1-3, 1996, pp. 115-126. doi:10.1016/0377-8401(95)00892-6
[8] United States Pharmacopeial Convention, “The United States Pharmacopeia: The National Formulary,” Rockville, 1979.
[9] EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances Used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP), “Scientific Opinion on the Safety and Efficacy of Vitamin E as a Feed Additive for All Animal Species,” EFSA Journal, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2010, p. 1635.
[10] R. V. Acuff, S. S. Thedford, N. N. Hidiroglou, A. M. Papas and T. A. Odom Jr., “Relative Bioavailability of RRR- and All-Rac-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate in Humans: Studies Using Deuterated Compounds,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1994, pp. 397-402.
[11] G. Burton, “Vitamin E: Molecular and Biological Function,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Nottingham, 12-15 July 1993, pp. 251-262.
[12] C. Kiyose, R. Muramatsu, Y. Kameyama, T. Ueda and O. Igarashi, “Biodiscrimination of Alpha-Tocopherol Stereoisomers in Humans after Oral Administration,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 65, No. 3, 1997, pp. 785-789.
[13] G. W. Burton, M. G. Traber, R. V. Acuff, D. N. Walters, H. Kayden, L. Hughes and K. U. Ingold, “Human Plasma and Tissue Alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations in Response to Supplementation with Deuterated Natural and Synthetic Vitamin E,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 67, No. 4, 1998, pp. 669-684.
[14] National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, “DRI Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids,” The National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2000, pp. 186-283.
[15] S. K. Jensen and C. Lauridsen, “Alpha-Tocopherol Stereoisomers,” Vitamins and Hormones, Elsevier Academic Press Inc., San Diego, 2007, pp. 281-308.
[16] Y. Dersjant-Li and M. Peisker, “Utilization of Stereoisomers from Alpha-Tocopherol in Livestock Animals,” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Vol. 94, No. 4, 2009, pp. 413-421.
[17] G. E. Meglia, S. K. Jensen, C. Lauridsen and K. P. Waller, “Alpha-Tocopherol Concentration and Stereoisomer Composition in Plasma and Milk from Dairy Cows Fed Natural or Synthetic Vitamin E around Calving,” Journal of Dairy Research, Vol. 73, No. 2, 2006, pp. 227-234. doi:10.1017/S0022029906001701
[18] W. P. Weiss, J. S. Hogan and D. J. Wyatt, “Relative Bioavailability of All-Rac and RRR Vitamin E Based on Neutrophil Function and Total Alpha-Tocopherol and Isomer Concentrations in Periparturient Dairy Cows and Their Calves,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 92, No. 2, 2009, pp. 720-731.
[19] S. K. Jensen, N. B. Kristensen, C. Lauridsen and K. Sejersen, “Enrichment of Cows’ Milk with Natural or Synthetic Vitamin E,” Proceedings of Vitamin and Additives in the Nutrition of Man and Animal, Jena, 28-29 September 2005, pp. 78-83.
[20] Y. Dersjant-Li and M. Peisker, “A Critical Review of Methodologies Used in Determination of Relative Bio-Availability Ratio of RRR-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate and All-Rac-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 90, No. 10, 2010, pp. 1571-1577. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3994
[21] P. P. Hoppe, “Letter to the Editor Regarding the Review Paper by Dersjant-Li and Peisker,” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Vol. 94, No. 4, 2010, pp. 547-548.
[22] M. Hidiroglou, “Pharmacokinetic Profile of Plasma Tocopherol Following Intramuscular Administration of Acetylated Alpha-Tocopherol to Sheep,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 79, No. 6, 1996, pp. 1027-1030. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76455-X
[23] A. Baldi, V. Bontempo, F. Cheli, S. Carli, C. S. Rossi and V. Dell’Orto, “Relative Bioavailability of Vitamin E in Dairy Cows Following Intraruminal Administration of Three Different Preparations of DL-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate,” Veterinary Research, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1997, pp. 517-524.
[24] V. Bontempo, A. Baldi, F. Cheli, F. Fantuz, I. Politis, S. Carli and V. Dell’Orto, “Kinetic Behavior of Three Preparations of Alpha-Tocopherol after Oral Administration to Postpubertal Heifers,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 61, No. 5, 2000, pp. 589-593. doi:10.2460/ajvr.2000.61.589
[25] W. P. Weiss and D. J. Wyatt, “Effect of Dietary Fat and Vitamin E on Alpha-Tocopherol in Milk from Dairy Cows,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 86, No. 11, 2003, pp. 3582-3591. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73964-2
[26] A. Baldi, G. Savoini, L. Pinotti, E. Monfardini, F. Cheli and V. Dell’Orto, “Effects of Vitamin E and Different Energy Sources on Vitamin E Status, Milk Quality and Reproduction in Transition Cows,” Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series A, Vol. 47, No. 10, 2000, pp. 599-608. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0442.2000.00323.x
[27] L. Pinotti, A. Baldi, I. Politis, R. Rebucci, L. Sangalli and V. Dell’Orto, “Rumen-Protected Choline Administration to Transition Cows: Effects on Milk Production and Vitamin E Status,” Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series A, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2003, pp. 18-21. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0442.2003.00502.x
[28] A. Baldi and L. Pinotti, “Choline Metabolism in High-Producing Dairy Cows: Metabolic and Nutritional Basis,” Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 86, No. 2, 2006, pp. 207-212. doi:10.4141/A05-061
[29] E. U. Nwose, H. F. Jelinek, R. S. Richards and P. G. Kerr, “The Vitamin E Regeneration System’ (VERS) and an Algorithm to Justify Antioxidant Supplementation in Diabetes—A Hypothesis,” Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 70, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1002-1008. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2007.07.048
[30] J. M. Finch and R. J. Turner, “Effects of Selenium and Vitamin E on the Immune Responses of Domestic Animals,” Research in Veterinary Science, Vol. 60, No. 2, 1996, pp. 97-106. doi:10.1016/S0034-5288(96)90001-6
[31] J. W. Spears and W. P. Weiss, “Role of Antioxidants and Trace Elements in Health and Immunity of Transition Dairy Cows,” Veterinary Journal, Vol. 176, No. 1, 2008, pp. 70-76. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.015
[32] S. Salman, A. Khol-Parisini, H. Schafft, M. Lahrssen-Wiederholt, H. W. Hulan, D. Dinse and J. Zentek, “The Role of Dietary Selenium in Bovine Mammary Gland Health and Immune Function,” Animal Health Research Reviews, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2009, pp. 21-34. doi:10.1017/S1466252308001588
[33] A. Ceballos, J. Sanchez, H. Stryhn, J. B. Montgomery, H. W. Barkema and J. J. Wichtel, “Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Oral Selenium Supplementation on Milk Selenium Concentration in Cattle,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 92, No. 1, 2009, pp. 324-342. doi:10.3168/jds.2008-1545
[34] T. Q. Cai, P. G. Weston, L. A. Lund, B. Brodie, D. J. McKenna and W. C. Wagner, “Association between Neutrophil Functions and Periparturient Disorders in Cows,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 55, No. 7, 1994, pp. 934-43.
[35] B. A. Mallard, J. C. Dekkers, M. J. Ireland, K. E. Leslie, S. Sharif, C. L. Vankampen, L. Wagter and B. N. Wilkie, “Alteration in Immune Responsiveness during the Peripartum Period and Its Ramification on Dairy Cow and Calf Health,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 81, No. 2, 1998, pp. 585-595. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75612-7
[36] J. S. Hogan, K. L. Smith, W. P. Weiss, D. A. Todhunter and W. L. Schockey, “Relationships among Vitamin E, Selenium, and Bovine Blood Neutrophils,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 73, No. 9, 1990, pp. 2372-2378. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78920-5
[37] J. S. Hogan, W. P. Weiss, D. A. Todhunter, K. L. Smith and P. S. Schoenberger, “Bovine Neutrophil Responses to Parenteral Vitamin E,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 75, No. 2, 1992, pp. 340-399. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)77775-3
[38] J. S. Hogan, W. P. Weiss and K. L. Smith, “Role of Vitamin E and Selenium in Host Defence against Mastitis,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 76, No. 9, 1993, pp. 2795-2908. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77618-3
[39] I. Politis, N. Hidiroglou, T. R. Batra, J. A. Gilmore, R. C. Gorewit and H. Scherf, “Effects of Vitamin E on Immune Function of Dairy Cows,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 56, No. 2, 1995, pp. 179-184.
[40] I. Politis, N. Hidiroglou, J. H. White, J. A. Gilmore, S. N. Williams, H. Scherf and M. Frigg, “Effects of Vitamin E on Mammary and Blood Leukocyte Function, with Emphasis on Chemotaxis, in Periparturient Dairy Cows,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 57, No. 4, 1996, pp. 468-471.
[41] I. Politis, N. Hidiroglou, F. Cheli and A. Baldi, “Effects of Vitamin E on Urokinase-Plasminogen Activator Receptor Expression by Bovine Neutrophils,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 62, No. 12, 2001, pp. 1934-1938. doi:10.2460/ajvr.2001.62.1934
[42] I. Politis, I. Bizelis, A. Tsiaras and A. Baldi, “Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on Neutrophil Function, Milk Composition and Plasmin Activity in Dairy Cows in a Commercial Herd,” Journal of Dairy Research, Vol. 71, No. 3, 2004, pp. 273-278. doi:10.1017/S002202990400010X
[43] K. L. Smith, J. H. Harrison, D. D. Hancock, D. A. Todhunter and H. R. Conrad, “Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplementation on Incidence of Clinical Mastitis and Duration of Clinical Symptoms,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 67, No. 6, 1984, pp. 1293-1300. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(84)81436-8
[44] W. P. Weiss, J. S. Hogan, D. A. Todhunter and K. L. Smith, “Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation in Diets with a Low Concentration of Selenium on Mammary Gland Health of Dairy Cows,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 80, No. 8, 1997, pp. 1728-1737. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76105-8
[45] N. Bourne, D. C. Wathes, K. E. Lawrence, M. McGowan and R. A. Laven, “The Effect of Parenteral Supplementation of Vitamin E with Selenium on the Health and Productivity of Dairy Cattle in the UK,” The Veterinary Journal, Vol. 177, No. 3, 2008, pp. 381-387. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.06.006
[46] S. J. LeBlanc, T. F. Duffield, K. E. Leslie, K. G. Bateman, J. TenHag, J. S. Walton and W. H. Johnson, “The Effect of Prepartum Injection of Vitamin E on Health in Transition Dairy Cows,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 85, No. 6, 2002, pp. 1416-1426. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74209-4
[47] K. Persson Waller, C. Hallen Sandgren, U. Emanuelson and S. K. Jensen, “Supplementation of RRR-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate to Periparturient Dairy Cows in Commercial Herds with High Mastitis Incidence,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 90, No. 8, 2007, pp. 3640-3646. doi:10.3168/jds.2006-421
[48] R. J. Bouwstra, M. Nielen, J. A. Stegeman, P. Dobbelaar, J. R. Newbold, E. H. J. M. Jansen and T. van Werven, “Vitamin E Supplementation during the Dry Period in Dairy Cattle. Part I: Adverse Effect on Incidence of Mastitis Postpartum in a Double-Blind Randomized Field Trial,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 93, No. 12, 2010, pp. 5684-5695. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3159
[49] W. P. Weiss, D. A. Todhunter, J. S. Hogan and K. L. Smith, “Effect of Duration of Supplementation of Selenium and Vitamin E on Periparturient Dairy Cows,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 73, No. 11, 1990, pp. 3187-3194. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)79009-1
[50] R. J. Bouwstra, M. Nielen, J. R. Newbold, E. H. J. M. Jansen, H. F. Jelinek and T. van Werven, “Vitamin E Supplementation during the Dry Period in Dairy Cattle. Part II: Oxidative Stress Following Vitamin E Supplementation May Increase Clinical Mastitis Incidence Postpartum,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 93, No. 12, 2010, pp. 5696-5706. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3161
[51] J. W. G. Nicholson, A. M. St-Laurent, R. E. McQueen and E. Charmley, “The Effect of Feeding Organically Bound Selenium and α-Tocopherol to Dairy Cows on Susceptibility of Milk to Oxidation,” Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 71, No. 1, 1991, pp. 135-143.
[52] E. Charmley, J. W. G. Nicholson and J. A. Zee, “Effect of Supplemental Vitamin E and Selenium in the Diet on Vitamin E and Selenium Levels and Control of Oxidized Flavor in Milk from Holstein Cows,” Canadian Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 73, No. 2, 1993, pp. 453-457. doi:10.4141/cjas93-049
[53] R. M. Al-Mabruk, N. F. G. Beck and R. J. Dewhurst, “Effects of Silage Species and Supplemental Vitamin E on the Oxidative Stability of Milk,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 87, No. 2, 2004, pp. 406-412. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73180-X
[54] A. S. Atwal, M. Hidiroglou, J. K. G. Kramer and M. R. Binns, “Effects of Feeding Alpha-Tocopherol and Calcium Salts of Fatty-Acids on Vitamin E and Fatty-Acid Composition of Cows Milk,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 73, No. 10, 1990, pp. 2832-2841. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78971-0
[55] W. P. Weiss, “Antioxidant Nutrients, Cow Health, and Milk Quality,” Proceedings of the Penn State Dairy Cattle Nutrition Workshop, Grantville, 9-10 November 2005, pp. 11-18.
[56] D. Durand, V. Scislowski, D. Gruffat, Y. Chilliard and D. Bauchart, “High-Fat Rations and Lipid Peroxidation in Ruminants: Consequences on the Health of Animals and Quality of Their Products,” In: J. F. Hocquette and S. Gigli, Eds., Indicators of Milk and Beef Quality, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, 2005, pp. 137- 150.
[57] T. Slots, L. H. Skibsted and J. H. Nielsen, “The Difference in Transfer of All-Rac-Alpha-Tocopherol Stereo-Isomers to Milk from Cows and the Effect on Its Oxidative Stability,” International Dairy Journal, Vol. 17, No. 7, 2007, pp. 737-745. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2006.09.010
[58] R. D. Allison and R. A. Laven, “Vitamin E for Milk Production in Dairy Cows: A Review,” Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews. Series B, Livestock Feeds and Feeding, Vol. 71, No. 12, 2001, pp. 43- 51.
[59] M. S. Havemose, M. R. Weisbjerg, W. L. P. Bredie, H. D. Poulsen and J. H. Nielsen, “Oxidative Stability of Milk Influenced by Fatty Acids, Antioxidants, and Copper Derived from Feed,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 89, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1970-1980. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72264-0
[60] P. Bergamo, E. Fedele, L. Iannibelli and G. Marzillo, “Fat-Soluble Vitamin Contents and Fatty Acid Composition in Organic and Conventional Italian Dairy Products,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 82, No. 4, 2003, pp. 625-631. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00036-0
[61] J. H. Nielsen, T. Lund-Nielsen and L. Skibsted, “Higher Antioxidant Content in Organic Milk than in Conventional Milk Due to Feeding Strategy,” Newsletter from Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, No. 3, 2004.
[62] K. A. Ellis, A. Monteiro, G. T. Innocent, D. Grove-White, P. Cripps, W. G. McLean, C. V. Howard and M. Mihm, “Investigation of the Vitamins A and E and Beta-Carotene Content in Milk from UK Organic and Conventional Dairy Farms,” Journal of Dairy Research, Vol. 74, No. 4, 2007, pp. 484-491. doi:10.1017/S0022029907002816
[63] G. Butler, J. H. Nielsen, T. Slots, C. Seal, M. D. Eyre, R. Sanderson and C. Leifert, “Fatty Acid and Fat-Soluble Antioxidant Concentrations in Milk from High- and Low-Input Conventional and Organic Systems: Seasonal Variation,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 88, No. 8, 2008, pp. 1431-1441. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3235
[64] A. Baldi and L. Pinotti, “Lipophilic Microconstituents of Milk,” In: Z. B?sze, Ed., Bioactive Components of Milk, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Vol. 606, Part 1, 2008, pp. 109-125. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-74087-4_3

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.