ken as a main node, plant layout is dominated by large arbor position, and it mainly emphasizes that garden trees are dominant by cypress. It is because that Sakyamuni and his disciples had used “cypress seed to hunger”, and cypress is also the symbol of longevity and eternity. Peach is planted in front of the palace gates, and they are 7, 8, 15, 18 or 28 respectively, with the meaning of blessing. For example, Gesang Palace uses the plant configuration form of pine + cypress + walnut, playing the role of radiation from space composition. Norbulingka has two kinds of road layout models. One is ring, and it is dominant by turning road, meaning “reincarnation”. The other is line layout, and it mainly plays the space function. At this place, common plant configuration is hedge + flower, playing the role of “connection” from space composition. Large-area U. pumila and Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. are also cultivated in Norbulingka, mainly playing the roles of spaceseparation, delineation of scenic boundaries, barriers in space composition (Zheng, 2017; Lin, 2017) . Plant layout model in three kinds of space nodes are shown as Table 2.
4. Statistics and Analysis of Plant Color Value
4.1. Investigation Statistics of CMYK Value
Combining the data, color characteristics of leaves, flowers and fruits from each ornCMYK has the characteristics of high color identification and high color resolution. It can perform objective quantitative analysis and qualitative evaluation of color, and has scientific value and verifiability for monitoring the dynamic change of the seasonal color of plants.
Amental plant in Norbulingka were collected and analyzed from September to October, 2017 and March to May, 2018. Moreover, CMYK value was extracted by the related software, and result was shown as Table 3.
Seen from Table 3, CMYK values of ornamental plants in Norbulinkaare richer, in which green line in leaf color value is the most, a total of 50; there are 7 red lines and 17 blue and violet lines in flower color value.
Table 2. Plant configuration at main nodes of Norbulingka landscape area.
Table 3. Color difference values of leaves, flowers and fruits from each in ornamental plant in Norbulingka.
Note: E. pulcherrima belongs to potted plant. According to field survey, a large number of E. pulcherrima appear in Norbulinka. Started from landscape color use angle, E. pulcherrima is listed as ornamental plant for unified investigation and analysis.
4.2. Analysis on Leaf Color Values of Ornamental Plants in Norbulinka
Seen from Figure 1, percentage of purple herb = red shrub; cyan herb > light green herb; dark green arbor > grass green arbor; yellow shrub > jade green shrub; bitter orange arbor < bottle green arbor.
4.3. Analysis on Flower Color Values of Ornamental Plants in Norbulinka
Seen from Figure 2, percentage of bitter orange herb < blue shrub; cyan herb > light green herb; dark green arbor > grass green arbor; yellow shrub > jade green shrub; bitter orange arbor < bottle green arbor.
4.4. Analysis on Fruit Color Values of Ornamental Plants in Norbulinka
Seen from Figure 3, percentage of purple shrub > yellow shrub; yellow arbor > red arbor; blue arbor = green arbor; red shrub < green shrub,
5. Results and Discussions
The results showed that 1) in color values of leaves, percentage of purple herb = red shrub; cyan herb > light green herb, dark green arbor > grass green arbor,
Figure 1. Difference analysis of leaf color values of ornamental plants in Norbulinka.
Figure 2. Difference analysis of flower color values of ornamental plants in Norbulinka.
Figure 3. Difference analysis of fruit color values of ornamental plants in Norbulink.
yellow shrub > jade green shrub, bitter orange arbor < bottle green arbor; 2) in color values of flowers, percentage of bitter orange herb < blue shrub, cyan herb > light green herb, dark green arbor > grass green arbor, yellow shrub > jade green shrub, bitter orange arbor < bottle green arbor; 3) in color values of fruits, percentage of purple shrub > yellow shrub, yellow arbor > red arbor, blue herb = green arbor, red shrub < green shrub.
The investigation time lasted for 4 months, which did not form complete cycle and could not completely reflect dynamic color change of ornamental plants in Norbulink. Meanwhile, the weights of perennial herb and tree change with time goes by, as well as its flower, fruit, leaf, twig and bark, and it needs further exploring the whole impact of plant color in Norbulink.
Based on the research, it could further study dynamic color changes of ornamental plants in Tibet theme park by quantitative analysis method.
Plant configuration in Norbulink combines Chinese gardening techniques, and a lot of local tree species are planted according to local situation. Meanwhile, the introduction of numerous exotic plants is to better use garden features. Based on prior investigation, plant color data in Norbulink was collected. Combining dynamic change of plant color, plant configuration and color characteristic in Norbulink were analyzed. Plant color data collected by CMYK as the basis of color design of plant landscape has the characteristic of qualitatively and quantitatively expressing color composition, and is the optimization method of scientifically and reasonably expressing color design of plant landscape. Color difference analysis method in this paper has certain research significance for the plant configuration and color matching of plateau garden landscape.
This work is supported by the Supported by Open Fund of Tibet Plateau Ecological Security Joint Laboratory (STX2018-02), Research Project of Tibet Autonomous Region on College Humanistic and Social Sciences (sk2015-38), MOE Youth Find Project on Humanistic, Social and Scientific Research (13YJC840020), 2015 Landscape Construction Project, and 2016 Higher Vocational Technical Education Quality Promotion Plan on Landscape Technology.
Cite this paper
Li, W. B., Xing, Z., Suolang, Z. J., & Fang, J. P. (2018). Configuration Mode of Ornamental Plants in Norbulingka of Tibet and Application of Landscape Color. Current Urban Studies, 6, 278-291. https://doi.org/10.4236/cus.2018.62016