Communications and Network, 2013, 5, 81-85
doi:10.4236/cn.2013.51B019 Published Online February 2013 (
Design and Implementation of a New Chinese Word
Segmentation Dictionary for the Personalized Mobile
Zhongmin Wang, Jingna Qi, Yan He
School of Computer Science and Technology, Xi’an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi’an, China
Received 2012
Chinese word segmentation is the basis of natural language processing. The dictionary mechanism significantly influ-
ences the efficiency of word segmentation and the understanding of the user’s intention which is implied in the user’s
query. As the traditional dictionary mechanisms can't meet the present situ ation of personalized mobile search, this pa-
per presents a new dictionary mechanism which contains the word classification information. This paper, furthermore,
puts forward an approach for improving the traditional word bank structure, and proposes an improved FMM segmenta-
tion algorithm. The results show that the new dictionary mechanism has made a significant increase on the query effi-
ciency and met the user’s individual requirements better.
Keywords: Chinese Word Segmentation; Dictionary Mechanism; Natural Language Processing; Personalized Search;
Word Classification Information
1. Introduction
With the rapid growth of network information resources,
the personalized information services have become a hot
issue of the contemporary search engine. How to obtain
the user's search intention becomes the primary task of
the personalized search. At present, many technologies
can be used to get users’ interests, such as natural lan-
guage understanding, concept-based retrieval, semantic
network technology, etc. In order to overcome some of
the shortcomings of these common technologies and
meet the need of the users’ mobile search, a new diction-
ary word segmentation mechanism is proposed which
can get the word classification information of the user’s
query directly after word segmentation. And these cate-
gory messages can be used to infer the user’s search in-
The traditional dictionary mechanisms for Chinese
word segmentation are mainly based on binary-seek-
by-word, TRIE indexing tree, binary-seek-by-characters
[1]. Among the three methods, the mechanism based on
binary-seek-by-characters is the improvement of the pre-
vious two dictionary mechanisms, which integrates the
simple dictionary body of binary-seek-by-word diction-
ary mechanism and high-efficiency search processing of
TRIE indexing tree dictionary mechanism. Since it still
uses the binary-seek-by-word structure, the search range
for second word is not reduced, and its efficiency is lim-
ited [2]. At present, public dictionary mechanisms have
their own strengths, but they are basically improved on
the basis of traditional dictionary mechanism. Such as
double-character-hash-indexing, multi-character-hash-in-
dexing [1,2,4,5]. They are indeed effective ways to im-
prove the matching efficiency of the system. But directly
using the hash method on words makes hash table or
index table difficult to build, and the complex structure
of this kind of word bank makes it difficult to maintain.
This paper puts forward an efficient dictionary mecha-
nism for word segmentation based on the classification
information of word. It can get word classification in-
formation of the users’ query to provide the basis for the
establishment of the user’s interest model. On this basis,
this paper also provides an approach for improving the
FMM algorithm to fit for the new dictionary mechanism
which could greatly enhance the efficiency of the word
2. A New Dictionary Mechanism with the
Word Classification Information
The new dictionary mechanism that contains the word
classification information is the improvement of bi-
nary-seek-by-characters. It employs a new hash mecha-
*This work is supported b y Shaanxi Science & Technology Depa rtment
(2011K06-26) & national natural science foundation project
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CN
nism of the second-character’s area code subsection,
which can greatly reduce searching scope of the sec-
ond-character and accelerate the process of the system.
The new dictionary mechanism could also provide the
word classification information after word segmentation
which is the basis for the personalized analysis of the
user’s intention.
2.1. New Dictionary Architecture
The category information of the new dictionary is de-
signed as Figure 1, which consists of entertainment,
sports, urban, nature, engineering and other 12 kinds of
word category. Each category contains the corresponding
branches with 3 levels, an d each level is encoded sequen-
tially. This encoding method can quickly identify the
classification information of the target word.
As for the design of the new dictionary with word
classification information, firstly process the original
linear dictionary according to the category information to
get independent linear dictionary based on category in-
formation. Then change the classified linear dictionary
into the new dictionary according to the hash mechanism
of the second-character’s area code subsection. And clas-
sification information is added to each entry in this proc-
2.2. Chinese Word Frequency Statistics
As [3,7] shown, the number of two-character words is
quite larger than the single words and multi-character
words. As the number of words that have the same first
character is so large, it needs more time to find the sec-
ond character using the dichotomizing search mechanism.
So reducing the searching scope of the second character
can improve the query efficiency greatly.
To avoid the problem of too long hash table of the
second character caused by double-character-hash-in-
dexing, this paper proposes a new method—the hash
mechanism of the second-character’s area code subsec-
tion. First of all, get the statistical result of distribution
range of the second word in the original word bank.
Figure 1. Category information of the dictionary.
Second, divide second characters into non-uniform sub-
section. In this process, entries with the same first char-
acter are mapped to different subsection according to
their second-character’s area code (Section number is:
1-20). The new mechanism only increases a small
amount of storage space, but greatly reduces the range of
the second-character inquiry.
2.3. The Construct Procedure of Dictionary
During the construction of dictionary, each character in
the first-character Hash table is added with an additional
data structure which is used to store the information of
area code subsection of the second-character. Then the
second-character is hashed into 20 sub-tables according
to its area code. Through this mechanism, we can get the
pointer of second-character indexing table according to
the section number of the second-character’s area code.
This will greatly reduce the range of inquiry of the sec-
ond-character. The construct procedure of the dictionary
is shown in Figure 2.
Table 1. Chinese word freq uency statistics.
The number
of characters1 2 3 4 5
The number
of words 9919 65891 26352 21699 5124
Figure 2. Construct flow of dictionary.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CN
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CN
Figure 3. The logical structure of the dictionary.
The dictionary mechanism proposed in this paper also
integrates the information of the word frequency. During
the segmentation, word frequency can be taken into ac-
count. And the words with high frequency have the pri-
ority to be selected, which may further improve the effi-
ciency of the system.
2.4. New Dictionary’s Logical Structure
The logical structure of the new dictionary is shown in
Figure 3. As shown in this figure, the new dictionary
structure consists of four parts: First-character Hash table,
Area code subsection of the second-character Hash table,
Second-character indexing table, Dictionary text table.
1) First-character Hash table: F_hash
First-character Hash table which adds some attribute
values is formed on the basis of present mature mecha-
nism of First-character Hash table. The structure is
shown in Table 2.
The first characters (word First) are the Chinese char-
acters from GB2312 encoding table. According to the
machine code of the Chinese characters, we can quickly
locate the first character in the F_hash table. Hash func-
tion is as follows:
)1xA0(94)0xB0( 21 
 c coffset (1)
c1, c2, represent the high byte and the low byte of the
character’s machine code. Offset represents character’s
array subscripts in F_hash.
In this table, is Word represents whether the first cha-
racter is a word. If the first character is a word (the value
of is Word is TRUE), then frequency and coding in the
table can be used to record the word frequency and their
classification respectively. S_hash is a pointer which
points to the table of S_hash. This table belongs to the
second-character of words which begin with wordFirst.
After obtain the second-character’s subsection index, it
can navigate to the next unit with the current pointer of
2) Area code subsection of the second-character Hash
table: S_hash
In the process of this stage, all the words in the origi-
nal word bank are analyzed statistically to get the fre-
quency of each second-character. And then according the
frequency, the second-characters are arranged into dif-
ferent areas. The second-character with higher frequency
is divided into a small interval, and low frequency is di-
vided into large interval. By this means, words begin
with the same character are divided into non-uniform
subsection. It is the non-uniform interval that makes the
number of words in each subsection basically achieve
uniform distribution. The new mechanism can greatly
reduce the inquiry range of the second-character, and can
avoid the disadvantages of query efficiency limitation
caused by non-uniform distribution of the second-char-
acter. The structure of S_hash is shown in Table 3 re-
gionIndex (1-20) represents subsection index of sec-
ond-character’s area code. s_index is a pointer that points
to the table of S_index.
3) Seco nd-charact er indexing ta ble : S_ind ex
Table 2. F_hash structural.
wordFirstisWord frequency coding s_hash
Table 3. S_hash structura.
regionIndex s_index
This table stores the second-character of words which
meet the table of F_hash and S_hash constraints. Each
record in the table consists of 5 parts. Its structure is
shown in Table 4 word Sec represents second-character.
isWord, frequency, coding are same as the property in
First-character Hash table. last_table is a pointer that
points to the table of Last_table.
4) Dictionary text table: Last_table
Last_table is composed of dynamic arrays which
stores all words excluding the first two characters. The
structure of this table is shown in Table 5 lastStr repre-
sents the remaining string. Frequency, coding is same as
the property in First-character Hash table.
3. Improved Fmm Algorithm
Based on the new dictionary construction, this paper
proposed an improved Former Max Matching algorithm
(FMM). In word segmentation, instead of using fixed
maximum segmentation length [6-8], the improved FMM
algorithm using dynamic length determined by the target
words which begin with the current first two characters
on query sentence segmentation. This method effectively
overcomes the ineffectiveness of length limitation caused
by FMM.
Compared to FMM, the improved FMM has the fol-
lowing two improvements:
1) According to the new dictionary structure, the sec-
ond-character W2 is located like the following way. First,
obtain region Index depending on area code of W2. Sec-
ond, locate second-character’s place in S_hash that cor-
responding to W1 according to the value of region Index.
Then, we can find the second-character in S_index ac-
cordance with region Index. This strategy of sec-
ond-character subsection can greatly reduce the search-
ing scope of the second-character.
2) After getting the position of the second-character,
we can obtain Last_table corresponding to W1W2. Then
the improved FMM intercepts the current Chinese string
according to the length of words in Last_table and com-
pares the intercepted word with th e corresponding words
in Last_table. During the process, the improved FMM
will select the optimal segmentation according to word
length and frequency. Because the segmentation length is
dynamically determined by the length of words to be
matched, the efficiency is improved greatly, and the
shortcoming of low efficiency, caused by fixed segmen-
tation length in FMM, is avoided.
Table 4. S_index structural.
wordSec isWord frequency coding last_table
Table 5. S_index structural.
4. Experimental Results
By comparing the hash mechanism of the second-char-
acter’s area code subsection with binary-seek-by-char-
acters dictionary mechanism, the new dictionary mecha-
nism is tested from two aspects: time and space com-
plexity. In the experiments, the same improved FMM
algorithm is used to process the test text (31K) based on
the two dictionaries. The experimental results are given
in Table 6:
As shown in Table 6, the memory space of new dic-
tionary mechanism is 13% more than that of the bi-
nary-seek-by-characters dictionary mechanism, but the
time efficiency is improved by about 20%. Besides, word
classification information can be obtained after word
segmentation. For example, the input test sentence is:
and output result is show n in Figure 4.
For the first word of “计算机网络” of the result, it
belongs to the classification“031402,031404,032001”
which indicates the word belongs to the engineering ap-
plication of computer science and technology.
Table 6. Time and space consuming comparison of the two
dictionary mechanism.
mechanism Space
consuming/Byte Time
Binary-seek-by-characters 3553,068 156
New mechanism 4014,108 125
Figure 4. Segmentation test.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CN
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CN
5. Conclusions
The hash mechanism of the second-character’s area code
subsection, proposed in this paper, can greatly reduce the
searching scope of the second character. It can improve
the speed of word segmentation, and realize the im-
provement of time efficiency by consuming small space.
With the increas e in the n umber of dictionary entries, the
superiority of the new dictionary mechanism will be
more significant. Meanwhile, the new dictionary inte-
grates word classification information effectively which
can be used for user’s interest modeling and provides the
basis to meet the personalized needs of mobile users.
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