2013. Vol.4, No.5, 459-462
Published Online May 2013 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/psych) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2013.45065
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 459
Aggression in Boys and Girls as Related to Their Academic
Achievement and Residential Background
Md Shahinoor Rahman, Lailun Nahar
Department of Psychology, University of Chit tagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Received February 1st, 2013; revised March 4th, 2013; accepted April 3rd, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Md Shahinoor Rahman, Lailun Nahar. This is an open access article distributed under the
Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any
medium, provided the original wor k is properly cited.
The study was conducted to explore aggression in boys and girls as related to their academic achievement
and residential background in Bangladesh. Stratified random sampling technique was used and total 80
respondents constituted the sample of the study. They were equally divided into boys and girls. Each
group was again equally divided into high and low grade. Each subgroup was again equally divided into
urban and rural residential background. Thus the study used a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design consisting of two
levels of gender (boy/girl), two levels of academic achievement (high grade/low grade) and two levels of
residential background (urban/rural). The Bengali version of measure of aggressive behavior (Rahman, A.
K. M. R., 2003) originally developed by Buss and Perry (1992) was used for the collection of data. It was
found that regardless of gender, boys expressed more aggression than girls. Similarly, regardless of aca-
demic achievement, students with high academic grade will show more aggressive behavior than low
academic grade students. Finally, students of urban areas will not show significantly more aggressive be-
havior than rural areas students. Thus the differential treatment in gender, academic achievement and re-
sidential background provides a new dimension in understanding aggression in rural and urban boys and
Keywords: Aggression; Academic Achievement; Residential Background
Aggression is an overt behavior of a person that intended to
harm another person physically or psychologically or to dam-
age or destroy or take that person’s property. According to Ba-
ron (1994) aggression is any form of behavior directed toward
the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is mo-
tivated to avoid such treatment. Aggression viewed as a form of
behavior. The outcome of aggressive behavior is a very com-
mon phenomenon of our daily life. Considering social, political
and religious context, aggression is seen as a natural system.
Most of the time people show aggressive behavior for predo-
minant each others. In the family it is very as usual matter. For
example, clash between husband and wife, father and son, and
dominating one person to other. It simply reminds us that ag-
gression has a biological and social basis. Thus, aggressive
behavior in humans, for example, threat, attack and defense, are
commonly related to competition over resources. Moreover,
some environmental factors associated with the cause of aggres-
sion like crowding (Kaya & Erkip, 2001), noi se (Geen & O’Neal,
1969) and density. Thus, home environment may have any ef-
fect on aggression. Considering above matter this study on ag-
gression in boys and girls as related to their academic achieve-
ment and residential background is framed.
The present world-view experiences aggression repeatedly in
individual life as well as in national and international areas.
USDJ (2012) reported 1,203,564 crimes of violence in 2011. In
the same year, there were 83,425 forcible rapes and 751,131
assaults that resulted in injury to the victim. USGAO (2011)
reported more than 5 children die every day as a result of child
abuse. Harlow (1999) reported that family members were the
primary abusers of the men: a parent, guardian, or other relative
was identified by 57% to 70%.
In Bangladesh, violence is a common phenomenon and it in-
creases day by day. In 2007, more than half of married women
aged 15 - 49 experienced physical violence from their husbands
(NIPORT, 2009). ASF (2012) reported that since 1999 to 2011,
total 3321 person were victimized acid violence, among these
victim 818 were children, 812 were men and 1689 were women.
Eve teasing and rape are another type of violence against wo-
men in Bangladesh. Approximately 13,000 women were the
victim of eve teasing in 2010 (Masum, 2012) and more than
3092 were raped in 2012 (Police, 2013). A considerable part of
these violence, terrorism and rape prevailing in the country are
alarming for future generation for comfortable livings on this
earth. They confirm a basic lesson of human history that ag-
gression exists everywhere in our individual, social, national or
international life. The present study was an empirical investiga-
tion aimed at exploring the phenomenon of aggression in boys
and girls as related to academic achievement and residential
background in Bangladesh.
Several studies showed that poor academics predicted bad
behavior, which hampered academic progress (Chen et al.,
2010; Christle, Jolivette, & Nelson, 2005; Schwartz, Chang, &
Farver, 2001). Connor (2004) found a strong association be-
tween academic failure and aggression. Johnson (2009) in his
M. S. RAHMAN, L. NAHAR
research showed that an overall low average was a better pre-
dictor for the likelihood of a student displaying aggression at
school than was a specific learning disability label. Chen and
his associate (2010) found their research that aggression had
unique effects on later social competence and academic achieve-
ment. Stipek and Miles (2008) found relationship between ag-
gression and achievement is complex and reciprocal. Schwartz
et al. (2006) found adolescents who were highly aggressive,
increases in popularity were associated with increases in unex-
plained absences and decreases in grade point average. Chen et
al. (1997) found that academic achievement predicted chil-
dren’s social competence and peer acceptance. They also found
children’s social functioning and adjustment, including social
competence, aggression-disruption, leadership, and peer accep-
tance, uniquely contributed to academic achievement. Anderson
and Dill (2000) found their study that real-life violent video
game play was positively related to aggressive behavior and de-
linquency. They also showed stronger relation for individuals
who are characteristically aggressive and for men. Academic
achievement was negatively related to overall amount of time
spent playing video games. Hoover et al. (1992) found com-
petitiveness and regimentation have also been blamed in part
for an increase in the rate of students’ aggressive behaviour in
Japan. Mukerjee and Dagger (1990) claimed that leisure bore-
dom may be correlated to an increase in adolescent participa-
tion in crime. However, Barriga and his associate (Barriga et al.,
2002) showed aggressive behavior syndromes exhibited signi-
ficant zero-order correlations with the academic achievement
Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to determine the effect
of aggression on sex, academic achievement and resid e n c e .
Second objective of this study is to find out the consistency
of the recent study of aggressive behavior with previous re-
Final objective is to search for some predisposing causes of
aggression and to explain their moderating effects.
Rationale of the Study
According to Social learning theory of aggression, People
want to acquire self respect, to become supreme, to avoid feel-
ing of inferiority complex and try to dominate others in social
life, household life and national or even in universal life. In this
aspect the students of higher grade will try to dominate lower
grade students and students of urban will try to dominate rural
students showing more aggressive behavior. On the basis of
this logic, following hypotheses were framed.
H1: Boys will show more aggressive behavior than Girls.
H2: Students with high academic grade will show more ag-
gressive behavior than low academic grade students.
H3: Students of urban areas will show significantly more ag-
gressive behavior than rural areas students.
Materials and Methods
The sample of present study was constituted of 80 respon-
dents and equally divided into boys and girls. Each category
was again divided into high and low academic grade. Each sub-
group was then equally divided into urban and rural residen-
tial background. A stratified random sampling procedure was
taken for the collection of data from different department of Chit-
tagong University. They were between 20 - 25 years old.
The Bengali version of Measure of Aggressive Behavior
(Rahman, A. K. M. R., 2003) originally developed by Buss and
Perry (1992) was used for data collection. It contains 25 items
and was divided into 5 dimensions such as physical aggression
(five items), verbal aggression (nine items), hostile aggression
(five items), anger aggression (three items) and indirect aggres-
sion (three items). Hypothetical situations were constructed on
each item. Each item was followed by 5 alternatives ranging
from totally true to totally false. Totally true was given 5 points,
true was given 4 points, neutral was given 3 points, false was
given 2 points and totally false was given 1 point. The Highest
Possible Score (HPS) was 25 × 5 = 125 and the Lowest Possi-
ble Score (LPS) was 25 × 1 = 25. A score following on 75 or
above was regarded as Aggressive Behaviour Score. Its coeffi-
cient alpha is 0.89 and test-retest reliability is 0.80. The Meas-
ure of Aggressive Behaviour was confirmed by validation at se-
Design of the Stu dy
The present study used a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design consisting
of two levels of gender (boy/girl), two levels of academic
achievement (high grade/low grade) and two levels of residen-
tial background (urban/rural). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
was computed on total scores of the MAB. Three independent
variables such as 1) gender, 2) Academic achievement and 3)
residential background were used. Thus, a three-way ANOVA
involving two levels of gender, two levels of academic achieve-
ment and two levels of residential background was computed.
The summary of ANOVA has been presented in Table 1.
The results on total score of MAB showed that the main effect
for gender and academic achievement is statistically significant
(p < 0.01). A three-way interaction involving gender, residen-
tial background and academic achievement is statistically sig-
nifycant (p < 0.01).
The results of ANOVA shows (Table 1) significant main ef-
fect for gender (F = 122.18, df = 1/72, p < 0.01). An inspection
of mean scores (Table 2) shows that regardless of gender, the
male respondents (M = 71.70) expressed significantly higher
aggression as compared to female respondents (M = 63.30).
Similarly, ANOVA shows (Table 1) significant main effect for
Academic achievement (F = 18.29, df = 1/72, p < 0.01). An
inspection of mean scores (Table 2) shows that regardless of
academic achievement, the high grade respondents (M = 69.13)
expressed significantly higher aggression as compared to low
grade respondents (M = 65.95).
Gender × Academic achievement × Residential Background:
The results of ANOVA shows (Table 1) significant interaction
effect for gender, academic achievement and residential back-
ground (F = 7.35, df = 1/72, p < 0.01). In case of high academic
grade, it shows (Table 3) that rural boys respondents (74.50)
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
M. S. RAHMAN, L. NAHAR
Summary of the Anova involving gender, academic achievement and
residential background on t he t ot a l s c ores of the MAB.
Sources of variance SS df MS F
Gender (A) 1411.2 1 1411.2 122.18*
achievement (B) 211.25 1 211.25 18.29*
Residenc e (C) 12.8 1 12.80 1.10ns
AB 1.25 1 1.25 0.10ns
AC 24.15 1 24.15 2.09ns
BC 1.25 1 1.25 0.10ns
ABC 84.95 1 84.95 7.35*
Error 832.10 72 11.55
Total 2579 79
Note: ns = No t Significant, *p < 0.01.
expressed significantly more aggression as compared to urban
boys respondents (72.40). However, urban girl respondents
(66.90) expressed significantly more aggression as compared to
rural girl respondents (62.70). In case of low acade mic grade, it
is seen that there is no significant difference among boys of ur-
ban and rural respondent and girls of urban and rural respon-
In case of urban, it has found that girls with high academic
grade (66.90) expressed significantly more aggression as com-
pared to low academic grade respondents (61.60). But no sig-
nificant difference is found between boys with high and low
academic grade respondents. Similarly, In case of rural, boy
respondents with high academic grade (74.50) expressed sig-
nificantly more aggression as compared to boy respondents
with low academic grade (69.20). However, no significant dif-
ference is seen between girls with high and low academic grade
respondents of rural areas.
After analyzing means of different groups, it has seen that
there is a contrast pattern of aggressive behavior both in boys
and girls. In case of boys, there is no different between high and
low academic grade of urban respondents. But, high academic
grade respondents showed more aggressive behavior than low
academic grade of rural respondents. Contrary, In case of girls,
there is no different between high and low academic grades of
rural respondents. But, significant different have found in high
and low academic grade of urban respondents.
The findings of the study may be summariz e d a s follows:
1) The main effect of academic grade and gender was signifi-
2) The interaction effect of gender, academic achievement
and residence was significant.
3) Boys are more aggressive than girls.
4) Respondent with high academic grade is more aggressive
than respondent with low academic grade.
5) Boys with high academic grade of rural areas are more ag-
gressive than boys with high academic grade of urban areas.
6) Girls with high academic grade of urban areas are more
aggressive than girls with high academic grade of rural areas.
7) In rural areas, Boys with high academic grade are more
aggressive than boys with low academic grade.
Showing overall mean scores and significant mean differences between
gender and academic achievement on the total scores of the MAB.
Parameters Respondents Mean scores
Gender Female 63.30
High grade 69.13
Academic achievement Low grade 65.95
Note: Mean difference was computed using Newman-Keuls formula.
Showing overall mean scores and significant mean differences between
gender, socio-economic status and residential background on the total
scores of the MAB.
Gender Residential ba ckground Academic achievement
High grade Low grade
Urban 72.40 a 70.70 a
Boy Rural 74.50 b 69.20 a
Urban 66.90 c 61.60 d
Girl Rural 62.70 d 62.00 d
Note: Mean difference was computed using Newman-Keuls formula.
8) In urban areas, Girls with high academic grade are more
aggressive than boys with low academic gr ad e.
The present study was primarily design to observe the effect
of gender, academic achievement and residence on aggression
and whether these effect decrease or increase the aggressive
behavior. The analysis of result has reported that our first and
second hypotheses were supported objectively but third hy-
pothesis was not supported by our result. But, overall analyses
have reported that our third hypothesis is supported partially.
In first hypothesis, it was said that boys will show signify-
cantly more aggressive behavior than girls. The analysis re-
ported on the basis of academic achievement and residence,
boys exposed significantly more aggressive behavior than girls.
This result supported our hypothesis. Our findings is contradict
with Rahman and Huq (2005) in the context of Bangladesh.
This finding might be explained in the basis of conceptual the-
ory of aggressive behavior. Social learning theory of aggression
said that, at the various stages of society, member of it try to
dominate each other by means of aggressive behavior as a
In our practical life, it is seen that power full person of the
society try to establish predominance over forlorn people using
various technique of aggressive behavior. In domestic life, has-
sle of husband and wife, duel and adversity attitude is driven
for self-esteem and self-respect. From the consequence of pre-
vious study it has seen that, each society all over the world
male shows significantly more aggressive behavior than female
(Anderson & Bushman, 2002). Hence, the theory of aggressive
behavior and past research supported our hypothesis. Social,
economical, spiritual and cultural context of Bangladesh, it is
argued that men are trying to wield on women. Nevertheless
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 461
M. S. RAHMAN, L. NAHAR
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
women at the society try to continue compromising with men
anyway. In Bangladesh the outcome of culture and religion has
seen that men become the guardian of women in taking social
responsibility everywhere. On the other hand women suppose
that to secure their responsibility and social security is the so-
cial obligation of men. In this perspective we can say that boys
want to hold his best position showing aggressive behavior to
girls. On the contrary, girls show less aggressive behavior to
give the hint that her security and responsibility rely on boys.
In the second hypothesis, it was said that students with high
academic grade will show significantly more aggressive be-
havior than low academic grade students. The analysis shows
that student with high academic grade expose more aggressive
behavior than low academic grade students. Hence, considering
this analysis it can be said that our second hypothesis is sup-
ported objectively by our result. This finding might be explain-
ed on the basis of social learning theory of aggressive behavior.
Accordant to social learning theory, it can be said that aggres-
sive behavior is an art which can help acquire to become su-
preme. Respondent with high academic grade have came about
successful to become best. On the other hand, respondent with
low academic grad fall down the lower stage of social status. In
this perspective, it can be said that respondent with high aca-
demic grade to secure their best social position used strategy of
aggressive behavior. On the other hand, respondent with low
academic grade stay at lower stage of social status. Then, they
show comparatively low aggressive behavior. This result is con-
tradictory with Schwartz and his associate (2006) and Connor
(2004) but in the line with Chen (2010, 1997).
In third hypothesis, it was said that students of urban areas
will show significantly more aggressive behavior than rural
areas students. The results reveal that there is no statistically
significant difference between urban and rural areas respon-
dents. Then, it can be said that our third hypothesis is not sup-
ported by our result. But the interaction effects of gender, aca-
demic achievement and residence have found difference sig-
nificantly. This result indicates that girls with high grade of
urban areas expressed more aggressive behavior than that of
rural areas girls. With this analysis it can be said that our third
hypothesis is supported partially.
In conclusion, it can be said that rural boys with high grade
expressed more aggression than urban boys with high grade.
Similarly, rural boys with high grade expressed more aggres-
sion than boys with low grade. The results of this study have
proved that aggressive behavior can be increase or decrease as a
function of environment. Considering previous research and the
theory of aggressive behavior, it can be explained that, lower
class family member shows moderate behavior towards higher
class family member as a result of various socioeconomic con-
ditions. To explanation of this matter it can be said that some
times, lower class people do not show aggressive behavior to-
wards higher class people to calm down or balance the social
Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual
Reviews Psychology, 53, 27-51.
Anderson, C. A., & Dill, K. E. (2000). Video games and aggressive
thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal
of Personality and Social Ps y c h o l o g y , 78, 772-790.
ASF (2012). Voice, acid attack statistics. Dhaka: Acid Survivors Foun-
Baron, R. A., & Richardson, D. R. (1994). Human aggression. New
York: Plenum Press.
Barriga, A. Q., Doran, J. W., Newell, S. B., Morrison, E. M., Barbetti,
V., & Robbins, B. D. (2002). Relationships between problem behav-
iors and academic achievement in adolescents: The unique role of
attention problems. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders,
10, 233-240. doi:10.1177/10634266020100040501
Buss, A. H., & Perry, M. P. (1992). The aggression questionnaire.
Journal of Personality a nd Social Psychology, 63, 452-459.
Chen, X., Huang, X., Chang, L., Wang, L., & Li, D. (2010). Aggression,
social competence, and academic achievement in Chinese children:
A 5-year longitudinal study. Development and Psychopathology, 22,
Chen, X., Kenneth, H. R., & Li, D. (1997). Relation between academic
achievement and social adjustment: evidence from Chinese children.
Developmental Psychology, 33, 518-525.
Christle, C. A., Jolivette, K., & Nelson, C. M. (2005). Breaking the
school to prison pipeline: Identifying school risk and protective fac-
tors for youth delinquency. Exceptionality, 13, 69-88.
Connor, D. F. (2004). Aggression and antisocial behavior in children
and adolescents: Research and treatment. New York: The Guilford
Geen, R. G., & O’Neal, E. C. (1969). Activation of cue-elicited aggres-
sion by general arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychol-
ogy, 11, 289-292. doi;10.1037/h0026885
Harlow, C. W. (1999). Bureau of justice statistics selected findings.
Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Hoover, J. H., Oliver, R., & Hazler, R. J. (1992). Bullying: perceptions
of adolescent victims in the Midwestern USA. School Psychology
International, 13, 5-16. doi:10.1177/0143034392131001
Johnson, C. L. F. (2009). Low academic performance and specific
learning disabilities: Determining the better predictor of aggressive
behavior at school. Lynchburg: Liberty University.
Kaya, N., & Erkip, F. (2001). Satisfaction in a dormitory building: The
effects of floor height on the perception of room size and crowding.
Environment and Behavior, 33 , 35-53.
Masum, A. M. (2012). In recent time eve-teasing (sexual harassment)
has become major concern in Bangladesh. How far the law and the
government have been successful in comparing the issue of eve-
teasing? Explain and illustrate.
Mukerjee, S. K., & Dagger, D. (1990). The size of the crime problem in
Australia (2nd ed.). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
NIPORT (2009). Bangladesh demographic and health survey. National
Institute of Population Research and Tr aining.
Police, B. (2013). Crime Statistics, Monthly.
Rahman, A. K. M. R. (2003). Psycho-social factors in aggressive beha-
viour in males and females in Bangladesh. Rajshahi: Rajshahi Uni-
Rahman, A. K. M. R., & Huq, M. M. (2005). Aggression in adolescent
boys and girls as related to socio-economic status and residential
background. Journal of Life and Earth Science, 1, 5-9.
Schwartz, D., Chang, L., & Farver, J. (2001). Correlates of victimiza-
tion in Chinese children’s peer groups. Developmental Psychology,
37, 520-532. doi:10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.2060
Schwartz, D., Gorman, A. H., Nakamoto, J., & McKay, T. (2006). Po-
pularity, social acceptance, and aggression in adolescent peer groups:
Links with academic performance and school attendance. Develop-
mental Psychology, 42, 1116-1127.
Stipek, D., & Miles, S. (2008). Effects of aggression on achievement:
Does conflict with the teacher make it worse? Child Development, 79,
USDJ (2012). Uniform crime report. Washington DC: Federal Bureau
USGAO (2011). Child maltreatment: Strengthening national data on
child fatalities could aid in prevention (GAO-11-599).