Advances in Applied Sociology
2012. Vol.2, No.4, 274-279
Published Online December 2012 in SciRes (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/aasoci) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aasoci.2012.24036
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Ramifications Associated with Child Abuse
Hannah Mills, Elizabeth McCarroll
Department of Family Sciences, Texas Woman’s University, Denton, USA
Email: email@example.com, EmcCarroll@twu.edu
Received September 5th, 2012; revised October 7th, 2012; accepted October 20th, 2012
The incidence of child abuse has become quite prevalent and may be referred to as a global phenomenon
(Pala, Unalacak, & Unluoglu, 2011). In terms of a global phenomenon, it may be significant to assess
negative ramifications that are in existence for children’s overall social, emotional, and cognitive matura-
tion (DeOliveira, Bailey, Moran, & Pederson, 2004). Specifically, preschool children who are abused
within their home environments are less likely to detect variations in emotional expressions as compared
to preschoolers who have not been abused (Pollak, Cicchetti, Hornung, & Reed, 2000). In regards to the
domain of cognitive development, children who are reared in abusive home environments are likely to
display overactive behaviors and exhibit less concentration (Schatz, Smith, Borkowski, Whitman, & Ke-
ogh, 2008). In relation, children reared in abusive environments are less likely to perform at high levels in
regards to their math and reading abilities (Crozer & Barth, 2005). Thus, the act of child abuse may also
be better well understood by assessing parenting styles and how they play a role with affecting the type of
behaviors they elicit towards their children (Baumrind, 1994). For instance, specific traits or factors re-
lated to individuals’ parenting abilities, such as stress, depression, domestic violence, incarceration, and
psychological difficulties may be more likely to abuse their children as opposed to parents who do not
obtain these traits or factors (Nair, Schular, Black, Kettinger, & Harrington, 2003). Implications in re-
gards to the prevalence of child abuse may be quite significant, especially considering psychological
ramifications that may surface due to the act of children’s exposure to abuse (Johnson et al., 2002). For
instance, children may be more likely to suppress, or internalize their emotions due to the exposure to
child abuse and they may be more likely to externalize, or exhibit certain behaviors in an outward fashion
towards others due to the immersion within environments comprised of child abuse (Schatz, Smith,
Borkowski, Whitman, & Keogh, 2008). Furthermore, professionals who obtain the knowledge about child
abuse may better serve families and children who have experienced abuse within their lives.
Keywords: Abuse; Children; Parenting; Attachment; Developmental Domains
It is estimated that approximately 950,000 children were
abused in 2006 (Boyce, 2008). Child abuse has become a global
phenomenon whose perpetrators include acquaintances, friends,
caregivers, or family members (Pala et al., 2011). Child abuse
is quite significant and has many ramifications. Various do-
mains of children’s development, such as emotional, social, and
cognitive maturation may be directly affected due to the acts of
child abuse and children’s overall psychological well-being
may be directly affected by parents’ acts of engaging in callous
behaviors towards children (Crozier & Barth, 2005; Shipman et
al., 2007; Valentino, Cicchetti, Toth, & Rogosch, 2011).
When considering child abuse, it may be significant to define
the over-arching terms associated with this act. According to
Mansor and Samah (2011), child abuse is defined as maltreat-
ment targeted towards children that come in the forms of ne-
glect or abandonment. Abuse may also include intentional acts
of verbal, psychological, or physical maltreatment directed
towards children (Devaney, 2008).
This paper will describe the impacts of child abuse in relation
to how it may affect many dimensions of children’s develop-
ment. The negative implications associated with child abuse,
the impacts of exposure to child abuse and the development of
attachment, children’s emotional development, types of play,
parenting, the current context of the topic, an assessment on the
research conducted on the topic, and recommendations for fu-
ture research will all be presented below.
Negative Implications Associated with Child
Negative implications may be associated with child abuse
that affects many domains of children’s development and well-
being (DeOliveira et al., 2004). Previous literature has indicated
that child abuse may significantly alter children’s self-esteem
and overall perceptions (Iwaniec, Larkin, & McSherry, 2007).
Also, children reared in abusive home environments are less
likely to exhibit compassion towards others (Tanaka, Wekerle,
Schmuck, & Paglia-Boak, 2011). Parents who abuse their chil-
dren, or withhold affection are more likely to jeopardize their
children’s development of self-esteem and self-worth, which
may hold negative ramifications for children’s futures (Iwaniec
et al., 2007). For instance, children’s psychological well-being
may also be jeopardized by their caregivers’ abuse.
A study conducted by Johnson et al. (2002) investigated
psychological ramifications acquired by children who have
experienced child abuse within their environments. Measure-
ments utilized included the Child Behavior Checklist and a
H. MILLS, E. MCCARROLL
Trauma Checklist for Children (Johnson et al., 2002).
MANOVA tests were conducted, which included assessed
whether the independent variables (being a victim of child
abuse, and witnessing violence) surfaced as factors that predict
the outcomes of the dependent variables (levels of aggression
exhibited by caregivers, reports of depression provided by chil-
dren and caregivers, and children’s exhibition of anger and
anxiety). Results from the study indicated that children who
were reared in abusive home environments were more likely to
develop depression, aggression, anger, as well as anxiety, p
< .05. In addition, children were more likely to internalize and
externalize their behaviors if they were reared in abusive homes,
p < .01 (Schatz et al., 2008). Examples of internalizing behav-
iors include suppressing emotions, which may lead to the de-
velopment of depression. Conversely, externalizing behaviors
entail the exhibition of aggression.
Exposure to Child Abuse and the Development
Attachment plays a vital role in an individual’s psychosocial
development. Literature has indicated that children who were
reared in abusive family environments are more likely to obtain
disorganized, or insecure attachments with their caregivers as
compared to children who were reared in home environments
where they possess secure attachments with their caregivers
(DeOliveira et al., 2004). Children who form disorganized, or
insecure attachments with their caregivers are likely to lack
care or concern for others and are more likely to develop anxi-
ety and depression as compared to children who hold secure
attachments with their caregivers (Becker-Weidman, 2009).
Bowlby (1988) stated that attachment may be defined as a
relationship formed between caregivers and their children.
Children form attachments with their caregivers based upon a
sense of security, or belonging (Bowlby, 1982). Attachment
relationships that children obtain with their caregivers may be
labeled as secure or insecure. Secure attachment is defined as
children’s assurance that their caregiver will be present, or in-
volved within their lives (Bowlby, 1982). Children who are
securely attached are less likely to fear strangers and are more
likely to perceive their caregivers as a secure base that will
constantly be present (Bowlby, 1988).
Conversely, children who possess insecure attachments with
their caregivers are likely to exhibit traits related to insecurity
of their return. Children who are insecurely attached are also
less likely to explore their environments as compared to se-
curely attached children (Bowlby, 1982). Ramifications associ-
ated with insecure attachment may emerge. For instance, chil-
dren are more likely to develop anxiety disorders and depres-
sion as compared to children who attain secure attachments
with their caregivers (Scott, 2011).
Implications Associated with Child Abuse
Bowlby (1988) wrote that adults who are abused during the
early stages of development are more likely to abuse their own
children as compared to adults who were reared in homes ab-
sent of child abuse. Thus, the attachment theory may shed light
into specific behaviors that caregivers exhibit, which may sig-
nificantly alter the quality of attachment that children possess
with their caregivers. Parents who experienced abuse as a child
are less likely to form attachment relationships due to bouts of
uncontrollable anger they exhibit towards their children in re-
sponse to actions or behaviors (Bowlby, 1988). Mothers who
are abusive are also more likely to be labeled as cold and un-
emotional (Bowlby, 1988). Children reared by mothers who
exhibit these behaviors are likely to develop insecure attach-
ments with their caregivers as compared to children who are
reared by mothers who express empathy and care towards their
children (Cicchetti & Toth, 1995).
Characteristics of Children
Later implications may be in existence for children who have
been reared in abusive environments (Bowlby, 1988). Research
suggests that abuse children experience has a lasting impact on
future relationships. For instance, children who have been
abused and obtain insecure attachments with their caregivers
are more likely to possess a fear of abandonment in relation-
ships with others (Bowlby, 1988). Children who are reared in
abusive environments are also more likely to accept physical
abuse that they receive by significant others and they are more
likely to accept a lack of support from others (Bowlby, 1988).
Negative ramifications may be associated with children’s
maturation of various developmental domains, as discussed
Children’s Emotional Development
Implications may be in existence for children’s abilities to
recognize emotions if they are reared in abusive environments.
For instance, children reared in abusive home environments are
less likely to possess the mechanisms required to properly
regulate their emotions (DeOliveira et al., 2004; Schatz et al.,
2008). In relation, children obtain less capability for recogniz-
ing or understanding others’ emotions if reared in abusive
homes (DeOliveira et al., 2004). Emotion regulation is an im-
portant factor to consider in regards to peer relationships and
social development, as it impacts how children present them-
selves and how they respond to other people (Mills & McCar-
Recognition of Emotional Expressions
A study conducted by Pollak et al. (2000) investigated
whether preschoolers’ exposure to violence, or abuse within
their home environments would affect their abilities to recog-
nize others’ facial expressions, or emotions. Preschoolers in the
experiment were asked to match facial expressions to coordi-
nating emotional expressions and they were also asked to dis-
criminate specific emotional expressions exhibited on facial
Participants included 15 neglected children who ranged in
ages between 3 years and 5 months to 5 years and 8 months
(Pollak et al., 2000). Tasks that participants completed included
an “emotion discrimination task”, which asked children to dis-
cern whether children could discriminate between various types
of emotions displayed as well as an “emotion differentiation
task”, which asked participants to determine whether certain
types of emotions displayed by individuals were deemed as
similar. Results indicated that abused or neglected preschoolers
were less able to detect differences in emotional expressions
(Pollak et al., 2000). In addition, preschoolers reared in abusive
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 275
H. MILLS, E. MCCARROLL
home environments were more likely to display a particular
bias for facial expressions that displayed anger, or aggression.
Specifically, Pollak et al. (2000) reported that in regards to
“angry-neutral” facial expressions, maltreated children reported
less differences as compared to children who were not mal-
treated, F(2,28) = 3.93, p < .05, “sad neutral”, F(2,38) = 4.66, p
< .05, and “fearful-sad”, F(2,38) = 7.35, p < .01 (p. 683).
Mothers’ Reactions to Their Children
Mothers of children who are classified as abusive are less
likely to respond to infants’ cries or concerns, displaying nega-
tive affect as compared to non-abusive mothers (DeOliveira et
al., 2004). For instance, abusive mothers are more likely to be
non-responsive to their infants or less willing to care for their
infants who may exhibit distress (DeOliveira et al., 2004). Thus,
mothers’ inability to express sensitive attunement towards their
children may be related to the fact that they did not develop this
capability when they were young. In relation, mothers who
were reared in abusive home environments may be less likely to
express skills related to emotion regulation due to the lack of
exposure to these traits when they were young (DeOliveira et
Emotion Re gulation
In regards to emotion regulation, literature has indicated that
children who were reared in abusive home environments may
be less likely to obtain the abilities to regulate their emotions as
compared to children who were reared in non-abusive envi-
ronments (Shipman et al., 2007). The ability to regulate oneself,
or regulate emotions occurs by 3 years of age (Schatz et al.,
2008). Therefore, parents or caregivers may be quite influential
in terms of assisting children’s development of emotion regula-
tion (Schatz et al., 2008).
Research conducted by Shipman et al. (2007) investigated
the significance of abuse on children’s abilities to regulate their
emotions. Among the measurements used included a child mal-
treatment scale, labeled the CTS-PC as well as children’s emo-
tion regulation abilities, based upon results from completion of
the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC). In addition, interac-
tion styles exhibited by caregivers and their children as well as
caregivers’ reactions to their children’s behaviors were meas-
ured by utilizing the Parent-Child Emotion Interaction Task
(PCEIT). An additional instrument, labeled the Meta-Emotion
Interview Parent-Version was used for the purposes of assess-
ing caregivers’ emotional responses to their children’s behav-
iors (Shipman et al., 2007). Repeated measures ANOVA tests
were conducted on “emotion socialization procedures”, while
MANOVA tests were performed on children’s levels of emo-
tion regulation. Shipman et al. (2007) reported that children
who were maltreated were less likely to regulate their emotions
as compared to children who were not maltreated, F(2,76) =
8.65, p < .001. Also, Shipman et al. (2007) reported that moth-
ers in the study who were classified as abusive were also less
likely to provide emotional coaching or assist children’s abili-
ties to recognize and control their emotions as compared to
mothers who are not abusive, F(1,74) = 8.18, p < .01. Also,
mothers who maltreated their children were less likely to vali-
date their children’s emotions, F(2,150) = 3.53, p < .05.
Child abuse may hold significant implications for children’s
social development (Valentino et al., 2011). When considering
the development of social development, a consideration of the
roles of play should be considered, as it may serve as a signifi-
cant role in terms of fostering this developmental domain
(Valentino et al., 2011). For instance, children’s participation in
play may create opportunities for the establishment of social
interactions with others, which may greatly foster their matura-
tion within this developmental domain (Valentino et al., 2011).
Types of Play
Specific types of play interactions may differ between par-
ents who abuse their children as opposed to parents who do not
abuse their children (Valentino et al., 2011). A longitudinal
study conducted by Valentino et al. (2011) investigated varia-
tions in play interactions displayed by parents who abuse their
children and parents who do not. To investigate this phenomena,
researchers utilized a classification system labeled the “Mal-
treatment Classification System”, that denoted the type of abuse
that children received from their parents, which was either
categorized as physical or emotional (Valentino et al., 2011: p.
1284). In addition, children’s interactions with their mothers
were observed by utilizing the “Language Free Play” assess-
ment (Valentino et al., 2011: p. 1284). During the observation,
children’s play behaviors were also analyzed and recorded in
relation to how they interacted in their environments, with their
mothers by utilizing a measurement labeled the “ABA Para-
digm” (Valentino et al., 2011: p. 1284). In addition, children’s
cognitive abilities were measured using the BSID-II (Valentino
et al., 2011).
ANCOVA analyses were conducted that assessed mother’s
behaviors, children’s gender and cognitive abilities, which in-
dicated significant results, F(2,70), = 6.81, p < .01. Specifically,
Valentino et al. (2011) concluded that toddlers who were reared
in abusive home environments were less likely to engage in
child-directed play, (M = 4.08, SD = 2.2) as compared to chil-
dren from non-abusive families, (M = 6.18, SD = 2.1).
Children reared in environments consumed with child abuse,
such as physical abuse or emotional neglect are more likely to
obtain deficits in terms of their cognitive development abilities
(Wilkerson, Johnson, & Johnson, 2008). In terms of achieve-
ment, children reared in abusive environments are less likely to
conceive the concept of time and may possess difficulties un-
derstanding mathematical concepts (Wilkerson et al., 2008).
Furthermore, children reared in abusive home environments are
more likely to display overactive behaviors and may be less
able to concentrate as compared to children from home envi-
ronments in which abuse was absent (Schatz et al., 2008).
In relation, a study conducted by Crozier and Barth (2005)
investigated the impacts of child abuse on children’s cognitive
development by conducting interviews on children and their
caregivers. An interview labeled the Child Interview and As-
sessment was designed to assess children’s functioning in terms
of cognitive abilities, while interviews labeled the “Current
Caregiver Interview”, which are directed towards caregivers
were designed to collect information about the caregiver and
characteristics of their children in terms of behavioral charac-
teristics (Crozier & Barth, 2005: p. 200). Among measurements
used included the “Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test”, the
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
H. MILLS, E. MCCARROLL
“Woodcock-McGrew-Werder Mini-Battery of Achievement”,
and the “Child Behavior Checklist” (Crozier & Barth, 2005: p.
Results reported from Cozier and Barth (2005) indicated that
children reared in abusive environments were less likely to
display traits of optimal cognitive performance abilities on
national standardized tests, such as reading [ҳ²(N = 2498) =
17.72, p < .01] and math [ҳ² = 37.66, p < .001] as compared to
children who were not reared in abusive home environments.
After considering the impact of child abuse on various de-
velopmental domains, it may also be imperative to discuss the
roles of parenting in relation to child abuse. For, specific types
of parenting styles may be directly related to the prevalence of
child abuse (Baumrind, 1994).
The types of parenting styles elicited by individuals may
greatly influence whether children are abused by their parents
(Baumrind, 1994). Caregivers who exhibit parenting styles
conducive of authoritarian, or demanding behaviors are more
likely to abuse their children as compared to parents who dis-
play permissive or authoritative parenting styles (Baumrind,
Seminal work conducted by Baumrind (1994) may be further
substantiated by Rodriguez (2010) who investigated specific
types of parenting styles that were evident among those who
engaged in child abuse. Among the instruments used included
the Child Abuse Potential Inventory as well as the Parent-Child
Conflict Tactics Scale, which measured the degree of child
maltreatment that occurred within home environments. In addi-
tion, the Parenting Scale classified parenting styles that were
considered to be dysfunctional (Rodriguez, 2010). The study
was comprised of three parts. The first included a total of 327
participants who possessed children below the ages of 12 years,
who completed an online survey that assessed their parenting
styles, or abilities. The second portion of the study involved
115 parents as well as their children, who were between the
ages of 7 to 12 years (Rodriguez, 2010). Parents were asked to
completed the Parenting Style measure, the Child Abuse Poten-
tial Inventory, as well as the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics
Scale during a scheduled session, within their homes (Rodri-
guez, 2010). The third set of participants included 74 mothers
who were diagnosed with obtaining behavioral issues. These
participants also were mothers of children between the ages of
5 to 12 years. Participants completed the Parenting Scale meas-
urement as well as the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale and
the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (Rodriguez, 2010).
Results indicated that children were more likely to be abused
if their caregivers displayed authoritarian or dysfunctional par-
enting styles. Thus, parents’ “overreactivity” styles (T2 = 6.62,
p < .001) were greater than for parents’ “laxness” scores (Rod-
riguez, 2010: p. 736). Furthermore, Rodriguez (2010) con-
cluded that children were more likely to be abused by their
caregivers if they lacked traits related to sensitive attunement to
their children’s needs.
Traits of Pare nts
Specific traits are in existence for parents who abuse, or mal-
treat their children. Traits that parents exhibit include the in-
ability to control bouts of anger, or aggression through verbal
and physical means (Iwaniec et al., 2007). Caregivers who have
been abused are also less likely to interact with their infants as
compared to caregivers who were not reared in abusive home
environments (Bowlby, 1988). Thus, caregivers may be less
responsive to their infants’ needs, which may hold negative
implications for children’s development of attachment.
A study conducted by Nair et al. (2003) investigated the fac-
tors and traits of abusive mothers. Among the variables that
were measured included children’s cognitive, motor, and lan-
guage development (Nair et al., 2003). The researchers also
labeled risk factors that mothers may possess if they exhibit
abuse towards their infants. Some of the factors included: pa-
rental stress, depression, domestic violence, assuming the role
as a single parent, maladaptive life events, incarceration, and
psychological difficulties (Nair et al., 2003). In addition, risk
factors included the prevalence of substance abuse that mothers
of infants used. The study implemented by Nair et al. (2003)
transpired in the form of an intervention. Thus, mothers with
infants between the ages of 0 to 6 years received home visits
each week, while mothers of infants between the ages of 6 to 24
years received home visits every other week. Among the in-
struments used included the Child Abuse Potential Inventory
and the Parenting Stress Index (Nair et al., 2003). In addition,
infants’ development was assessed using the “Bayley Scales of
Infant Development” measure and the “Receptive-Expressive
Emergent Language Scale” (Nair et al., 2003: p. 1005).
Results indicated that mothers were more likely to abuse
their children if they possessed five of the risk factors listed
above. Specifically, Nair et al. (2003) reported that the child
abuse potential for the total group, which included the control
and intervention groups at 6 months of assessment in regards to
the five risks was (M = 264.4, SD = 99.0), while the child abuse
potential for the total group, which included the control and
intervention groups after 18 months of assessment in regards to
the five risks was (M = 235.8, SD = 100.8). Nair et al. (2003)
also indicated that mothers who obtain the potential to abuse
their children may benefit from individuals who serve the roles
as early childhood intervention specialists. Knowledge gained
from such specialists may greatly reduce the potential that
mothers may abuse their children (Nair et al., 2003).
The Significance of Communication
A study conducted by Ramirez, Pinzon-Rondon, and Botero
(2011) assessed the significance of caregivers’ communication
with their children in regards to the prevalence of child abuse.
Specifically, the researchers analyzed the type, or quality of
communication and affection shared between caregivers and
their children in regards to the frequency of acts in which chil-
dren were abused by their caregivers (Ramirez et al., 2011).
Participants included a total of 1089 households, with a total of
2992 children (Ramirez et al., 2011). The levels, or quality of
communication expressed by caregivers was measured using
the “Pacific and Atlantic Coast Family Characteristics Survey”
(Ramirez et al., 2011: p. 1024). The researchers specifically
assessed various types of communication patterns exhibited by
participants, which included positive interactions, comprised of
affection and communication as well as negative communica-
tion styles exhibited between parents and their children that
measured the prevalence of abuse within children’s environ-
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H. MILLS, E. MCCARROLL
ments (Ramirez et al., 2011).
Hierarchical logistical models were conducted on the data to
assess whether caregivers’ types, or levels of communication
may affect the prevalence of child abuse (Ramirez et al, 2011).
Results indicated that children who obtain open communication
with their caregivers were less likely to be abused as compared
to children who do not possess open lines of communication
with their caregivers (OR = 0.02).
Current Context of the Topic
The current context of the topic of child abuse in regards to
how it may affect various developmental domains is quite sig-
nificant. Thus, research has indicated that children who have
been reared in abusive home environments are more likely to
experience psychological difficulties, such as depression and
anxiety as compared to children who were not reared in abusive
home environments (Johnson et al., 2002). Previous research
conducted on this topic may shed light into the current context
of the topic by providing individuals, or professionals with
knowledge of the ramifications associated with child abuse
(Deblinger, Mannarino, Cohen, Runyon, & Steer, 2011). Thus,
professionals who possess knowledge related to ramifications
associated with child abuse may be more likely to understand
manners in which to assist those who are victims of abuse.
Furthermore, the current context of child abuse may be re-
lated to seminal works, postulated by Bowlby (1988). The prin-
ciples of the attachment theory may shed light into the current
context of the topic by signifying the importance of the type, or
quality of attachment children possess with their caregivers.
Thus, children who were abused are more likely to attain an
insecure attachment with their caregivers (Bowlby, 1988). Fur-
thermore, abusive caregivers are likely to display traits related
to uncontrollable bouts of aggression, absent of sincere affec-
tion (Bowlby, 1988).
Critical Assessment of the Research Conducted
on the Study
Previous research has emphasized the impacts of child abuse
regarding psychological ramifications that may occur as well as
how it may affect children’s overall development (Crozier &
Barth, 2005; Johnson et al., 2002; Pollak et al., 2000; Valentino
et al., 2011). Researchers have investigated the topic of child
development in a thorough fashion, by examining how this
event may affect the over-arching ramifications associated with
child abuse. However, researchers have not explicitly assessed
how culture or ethnicity may serve as a factor towards predict-
ing or explaining ramifications associated with child abuse
(Pollak et al., 2000). Thus, culture and ethnicity may serve as
foundations that significantly affect individuals’ perceptions
regarding abuse, which in turn may impact the way in which
individuals cope with child abuse (Ramirez et al., 2011).
Previous researchers have utilized mothers and their children
as participants, without considering fathers’ roles in regards to
child abuse (Schatz et al., 2008; Valentino et al., 2011). Thus,
considering the significance of child abuse in terms of both
caregivers’ roles may serve the role as an impetus for assisting
professionals or others working with families where child abuse
Recommendations for Future Research
Recommendations for future research are abound. For in-
stance, future research should incorporate fathers as participants
as a manner in which to assess father-child dyads instead of
solely relying on mother-child dyads to investigate implications
associated with child abuse (Schatz et al., 2008; Valentino et al.,
2011). Thus, the significance and implications associated with
child abuse may be understood at a greater level if knowledge
regarding fathers’ roles in relation to child abuse is investigated
(Schatz et al., 2008). Future research should also consider the
roles of child abuse in regards to how it may affect the prob-
ability that children are victims of bullying by their peers
(Seeds, Harkness, & Quilty, 2010).
The recommendations listed above may provide profession-
als with a greater understanding of how to assist children who
have been victims of child abuse. Obtaining knowledge about
the role of fathers may greatly assist professionals working with
families (Grief, Finney, Greene-Joyner, Minor, & Stitt, 2007).
Furthermore, assessing whether an association is evident be-
tween child abuse and bully-victimization may assist families
as well as professionals within school systems.
Professionals may also benefit from future research that is
targeted towards parent education. Specifically, research that
highlights characteristics of parents who exhibit features related
to the outward display of abuse towards their children may be
quite beneficial for further understanding the significance of
abuse itself. In addition, research that focuses on assessing
demographic features of parents may be beneficial for further
understanding the characteristics of those who exhibit aggres-
sion directed towards their children (Baciu, Voicu, Antal,
Mezei, & Roth, 2012).
Child abuse may obtain many negative impacts on children’s
development, as described above. As professionals, it is impor-
tant to obtain the knowledge about the ramifications associated
with child abuse so we can better understand specific charac-
teristics that children exhibit when considering various devel-
opmental domains. It is also imperative to obtain information
about child abuse so that we can recognize these behaviors and
better serve children and their families.
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