Int. J. Communications, Network and System Sciences, 2010, 3, 585-592
doi:10.4236/ijcns.2010.37078 Published Online July 2010 (
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
Analysing TCP for Bursty Traffic
Israfil Biswas, Arjuna Sathiaseelan, Raffaello Secchi, Gorry Fairhurst
Electronics Research Group (ERG), University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Kings College, Aberdeen, UK
E-mail: {israfil, arjuna, raffaello, gorry}
Received April 8, 2010; revised May 15, 2010; accepted June 19, 2010
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) has been designed to support interactive and bulk applications,
with performance tuned to support bulk applications that desire to continuously send data. In contrast, this
paper analyses TCP performance for a class of applications that do not wish to send continuous data, but in-
stead generate bursts of data separated by application-limited periods in which little or no data is sent. In this
context, the paper evaluates an experimental method, Congestion Window Validation (CWV), proposed to
mitigate the network impact of bursty TCP applications. Simulation results show that TCP-CWV exhibits a
conservative behaviour during application-limited periods. The results also show that TCP-CWV is able to
use the available capacity after an idle period over a shared path and that this can have benefit, especially
over long delay paths, when compared to slow-start restart specified by standard TCP. The paper recom-
mends the development of CWV-like algorithms to improve the performance for bursty applications while
also providing an incentive for application designers to use congestion control.
Keywords: Congestion Window Validation, Slow Start, TCP, Congestion Control
1. Introduction
TCP [1] provides an Internet transport protocol that has
been designed to support a range of applications. A TCP
sender encapsulates data to from TCP segments, which
are sent as packets over the Internet. TCP also incorpo-
rates congestion control to limit the impact of each flow
on other flows that share the network.
The standardized TCP congestion control [2] tech-
niques maintain a record of the currently available ca-
pacity along a network path in a variable, known as
Congestion Window (cwnd). Senders increase the num-
ber of TCP segments in flight each time positive feed-
back is received indicating that the current rate is not
contributing to congestion, and reduce cwnd when it is
perceived that the network may be congested as indi-
cated by loss or congestion marking. This regulates the
number of packets an application can inject into the net-
work (i.e., the transmission rate). In this method, re-
ceived ACKs may be thought of as clocking-out new
data [1] based on the concrete evidence that recent path
capacity was available.
Recent years have seen a change in way many appli-
cations use TCP. There has been a significant growth in
applications that are “bursty”, that is applications that
alternate periods of data transmission at a rate with lim-
ited by the application with periods where there is no, or
little data to be sent. We call a class of applications that
send at a rate lower than the actual available rate or at a
rate controlled by the application, “application-limited”
[3]. Applications that result in such traffic include online
games, video conferencing, etc. This behaviour can also
result when already deployed applications, such as when
the hyper-text transfer protocol (HTTP) [4] is used with
persistent connections. Accompanying the growth of
bursty application there has been increased deployment
of residential Internet [5].
VoIP and video streaming have become popular real-
time applications. However, conventional perception is
that TCP may be inappropriate for such applications be-
cause of congestion controlled reliable delivery may lead
to excessive end-to-end delays. More than 50% of the
commercial streaming traffic is carried over TCP [6]. As
wide-deployment of Network Address Translators, NATs
and firewalls often prevent popular media applications
over UDP traffic, bursty applications such as Skype [7]
and Windows Media Services [6] use TCP. Researchers
[7,8] have evaluated the feasibility of constant bit rate
(CBR) over TCP and motivated us to evaluate bursty
applications performance using CBR traffic over TCP.
Any application-limited TCP flow sends fewer packet
probes along the path than allowed by the cwnd. In this
case the TCP sender cannot validate that the current
value of the cwnd is appropriate by the reception of
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
ACKs. Therefore, standard TCP reduces the cwnd to the
Restart Window (RW) when the TCP sender leaves an
idle period, resetting the window to min (IW,cwnd) [9].
This results in poor performance for bursty applications.
It also could result in under-utilised capacity for several
round trip times (RTTs).
Standard TCP also unnecessarily increases the cwnd
during an application-limited period, extending this be-
yond the size confirmed by reception of ACKs.
To support the congestion control [2] for bursty flows
over networks with variable characteristics, the tradi-
tional congestion control methods need to be revisited.
This includes selection of an appropriate TCP-friendly
transmission rate [10] inter-flow and intra-flow fairness,
multimedia congestion control. We suggest TCP should
allow a flow to return, after an idle period, to a recent
previously permitted transmission rate, providing there is
no indication that the capacity has changed.
Congestion Window Validation (CWV) [3] is an ex-
perimental modification to the TCP congestion control
that was proposed to partially solve the problem of an
inappropriate cwnd value. CWV modifies TCP conges-
tion control to affect behaviour in two circumstances:
when a connection needs to resume transmission after an
idle period, and when the flow sending rate is limited by
the rate that the application generates data (i.e., applica-
tion-limited). In both cases, the current value of the cwnd
cannot be validated by reception of positive feedback at
the sender, since the number of packet probes along the
transmission path is lower than the congestion window
itself. In other words, the reception of an ACK does not
provide evidence that the network path is able to sustain
the transmission rate recorded in the cwnd.
CWV also modifies the TCP congestion control pro-
cedure by updating cwnd during application-limited to
match the application rate. It saves the latest cwnd for
use when the flow resumes after an idle or applica-
tion-limited period.
Many operating systems adopt a conservative ap-
proach where TCP resumes transmission in the slow-start
phase from a RW of only one packet immediately fol-
lowing an idle period [11]. This indicates that imple-
menters may prefer the safe approach of RFC 5681
which obsoletes RFC 2581, rather than the more recent
CWV proposed in RFC 2861. The remainder of this paper
explores the limited success of CWV. The next section
contains analysis on CWV. Section III analyses the per-
formance of CWV using simulation. Section IV dis-
cusses CWV issues. Finally, the last section provides a
2. Congestion Window Validation
To understand the response of standard TCP after an idle
period, this section describes three application behav-
iours (this forms the basis of the tests performed in [11]
and [12]).
We refer to the case where an application stops send-
ing for a period less than the TCP Retransmission Time
Out (RTO) as a “short idle” period [3]. In this case, stan-
dard TCP allows a sender to resume transmission at a
rate constrained by the cwnd (i.e., at the same rate of
increase of sequence number with time). Therefore, TCP
can potentially send a cwnd-size line-rate burst into the
network after such an idle period. The hypothesis here is
that the previously determined cwnd is still valid when
the application resumes transmission.
An application that is idle for a period greater than the
RTO using standard TCP must restart with slow-start [2].
This resets the cwnd to no more than the Restart Window
(RW) and results in exponential growth of the sequence
number with time up to the stored ssthresh value. Hence,
TCP restarts the ACK clock as at the beginning of a
An application that stops sending for a period greater
several RTOs should not make assumptions about the
previous congestion state of the path that it was using,
nor that it is necessarily using the same path. Hence,
standard TCP recommends a sender that is idle over sev-
eral RTOs should continue from the RW by also reset-
ting the cwnd.
In [3], a technique was proposed to provide a conser-
vative estimate of cwnd. If the TCP connection has been
inactive (i.e., no packets in flight) for a period larger than
one retransmission timeout (RTO), cwnd is reduced by a
half as many times as the number of RTTs the TCP
sender had been idle. This is equivalent to exponentially
decaying cwnd during the idle period. Since TCP halves
cwnd each time a negative feedback is received (that is,
at most once per RTT), CWV provides a safe value for
cwnd, which is then expected to be validated by the re-
ception of ACKs during the first round of transmission
following the idle period.
TCP also resets the slow-start threshold (ssthresh) to
max (ssthresh, 3 × cwnd/4), which keeps previous in-
formation on the available path capacity. Since TCP re-
sumes with a cwnd larger than the restart window (RW),
the TCP sender can quickly recover its previous trans-
mission rate. CWV also suggests that an application that
stops sending for a period greater several RTOs should
make no assumptions about the previous congestion state
of the path it is using. Hence, a sender using TCP-CWV
will exhibit a performance resembling standard TCP.
When the TCP sender detects that the cwnd has not
been fully used for a period larger than an RTO (e.g.
observing that each packet transmission does not use a
full cwnd with an empty transmission buffer for more
than RTO seconds), cwnd is reduced to (cwnd + w_used)/
2. Here, w_used is an estimate of the portion of cwnd
that was effectively used by the application. Hence, this
mechanism avoids growth of cwnd to an arbitrary larger
value than the window-size actually used (because of
slow-start or congestion-avoidance cwnd increase) and
allows cwnd to be validated by reception of ACKs by the
Figure 1 shows the dynamics of cwnd for standard
TCP and TCP-CWV. In this case, we consider an appli-
cation that generates data at an application-defined rate,
interspersed by idle times when the application is inac-
tive. The figure shows that at point ‘a’ both standard
TCP and TCP-CWV start using slow start. Point ‘b’ de-
notes the point where the maximum rate permitted by
cwnd is less than the application rate. Standard TCP con-
tinues to grow the cwnd, while CWV does not increase
cend above that corresponding to the used rate. At point
‘d’, there is an idle period greater than a RTO, CWV
reduces cwnd by a half, but standard TCP resumes from
the RW (point ‘c’).
The discussion so far has focused on stable paths, and
it may be argued that path conditions often remain rela-
tively stable, at least for periods of several minutes [13].
However there are also cases where the Internet path
characteristics can change (e.g., routing topology changes
[14], mobility changes [15], intermittent wireless links)
or a change in traffic scenarios could invalidate the con-
gestion window. This may mean that a previously safe
rate may become unsuitable, if too a long a time has
passed since the network the path was last used. This
may also be a cause of an inappropriate cwnd.
To explore this, we examine a highly dynamic net-
work scenario where, not only significant variations in
traffic rate, but also changes in the transmission path
(due for instance to terminal mobility) modifying capacity
or delay characteristics of a path may happen. The prob-
lem is that any path change experienced while the sender
was idle could result in a significant increase of drop rate.
It is therefore important to assess whether it is reasonable
to allow an application to send faster after idle. Hence,
Restart Window (RW)
Idle period > 1 RTO
Media Rate
Standard TCP
Resrarts by cwnd/2
Figure 1. Illustration of cwnd dynamics for standard TCP
and TCP-CWV.
the assessment could contribute to limited transient con-
gestion in times of change, in return for improving ap-
plication responsiveness. Next section analyses the im-
pact of these methods that send faster after idle period in
transient conditions using TCP-CWV.
The section explores this hypothesis for a set of si-
multaneous bursty flows that share a single bottleneck
path. We analyse performance in a severely congested
scenario for both idle period and application-limited pe-
riod case.
3. Simulation Analysis of CWV
This section compares the performance of TCP-CWV
and standard TCP following a significant change of the
path characteristics.
The section considers two cases for analysis: 1) sev-
eral idle TCP connections restart simultaneously (idle-
period case), 2) several application-limited TCP flows
simultaneously subjected to a sudden variation of appli-
cation sending rate (application-limited case).
3.1. Idle Period Case
We analyse the performance of CWV after an idle period
in two cases:
1) when the bottleneck is shared between equal num-
bers of standard TCP and CWV flows (heterogeneous-
flow scenario). Hence, heterogeneous flows are mixed
flows that are competing with flows using one alternate
algorithm at a time.
2) when CWV or standard TCP only flows are present
(homogeneous-flow scenario). Hence, all flows use one
congestion control algorithm. Here a path is occupied by
one kind or same type of flows and not sharing with
other types of flow.
All simulations used a large advertised receiver win-
dow (1.5 MB) so that the TCP sender could send con-
strained only by the cwnd or CWV. Hence, flows at
steady-state are interrupted and restarted after a short
period of time. The interrupt and restart time of each
flow was chosen from a uniform random distribution.
Varying the duration of the idle period allowed investi-
gation of CWV behaviour compared to standard TCP.
Table 1 summarises the simulation parameters.
Figure 2 illustrates the simulation topology where
multiple TCP flows [S1, S2Sn, Sn+1] contribute traffic at
the node n0 and destinations are [R1, R2Rn, Rn+1].
These flows used a rate appropriate to medium quality
video [16] over IP with an encoding rate of 512 kbps
(packet size of 1500 bytes). To reach the destination via
node n3, one path is n4-n5 (capacity of 100 Mbps) and the
alternate path is n1-n2.
Assuming a scenario where there is a path break on
the path n4-n5 and n0 chooses n1-n2 with a currently
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
1ms 100ms 1ms
Figure 2. Single bottleneck topology.
Table 1. Configuration parameters for idle period simula-
Bottleneck Link
Bandwidth (Mb/s) 100
One-way Link Delay (ms) 100
Router Buffer Size BDP
Access Links
Bandwidth (Mb/s) 100
One-way Link Delay (ms) 1
TCP Configurations
Maximum Segment Size (B) 1460
Maximum Advertised Window Size (kB) 1500
Minimum Retransmission Timeout (sec) 1
Simulation duration (sec) 40
CBR traffic Parameters
Size (bytes) 1460
Rate (Kbps) 512
Idle period
Duration of periods (sec) 0.5 to 5
Changed Bottleneck Bandwidth (Mb/s) 2
Flow/Drop monitor duration (RTT) 5
available capacity of 2 Mb/s. We assume both paths have
the same path delay of 100 ms.
While TCP flows are idle, the common path changes
from 100 Mb/s to 2 Mb/s. The rate of 2 Mb/s was chosen
because if each TCP connection carries a 512 Kb/s con-
stant bit-rate flow. Increasing the number of connections
to 32 allows evaluation of the TCP performance under high
congestion. When TCP is used for bursty applications, it is
expected to match the application transmission rate or me-
dia rate. We measure the ‘Average received rate’, this is the
arrival rate at the receiver over a short period of time. The
performance is measured over 5 RTT following an idle pe-
riod (as an indication of the goodness of restart response).
The less conservative approach of CWV after an idle
period can result in more packet losses compared to stan-
dard TCP.
The packet drop rate was evaluated at the bottleneck
as an indication of protocol aggressiveness. This allowed
investigation of the trade-off between user-perceived
performance, reflected by TCP received packet rate, and
network performance (i.e., the loss rate). This drop-rate
is only relevant in the homogeneous-flows scenario,
where the cause of buffer overflows can be attributed to
the investigated protocol.
3.1.1. Heterogeneous-Flows Scenario
When the idle period is less than one RTO (about 0.5 sec
in the simulations), cwnd remained unchanged using
both TCP-CWV and standard TCP. These simulations
confirm that the two protocols achieve the same per-
formance. However, when the idle period is larger than
one RTO, TCP-CWV achieves better performance in
terms of packet arrival rate at the receiver.
Figure 3 shows performance for an idle period of
1.5 sec with the heterogeneous-flows. In this case, stan-
dard TCP resumes from the RW (one packet in this ex-
periment) and performs slow-start, whereas CWV re-
starts from a level significantly larger than RW. Finally,
if the idle period is larger than several RTOs, the simula-
tions show that TCP-CWV achieves the same perform-
ance as standard TCP and that CWV reduces the cwnd to
the RW as in standard TCP.
3.1.2. Homogeneous-Flows Scenario
When TCP flows compete with flows of the same type
(i.e., using the same congestion control algorithm), simi-
lar behaviour to the heterogeneous-flow case is observed.
That is, when the idle period is smaller than an RTO or
sufficiently large (e.g., 5.0 sec), standard TCP and TCP-
CWV achieves the same performance in received rate
and drop rate. Whereas for an idle period of few RTOs
(e.g., 1.5 sec) TCP-CWV outperforms standard TCP in
terms of achieved bit rate (Figure 4). However, this also
produces higher congestion at the bottleneck as illus-
trated by the drop rate graph (Figure 5).
Figure 3. Average received rate vs. number of flows for the
heterogeneous flows after 1.5 sec idle period.
Figure 4. Average received rate vs. number of flows after
1.5 sec idle period for homogeneous-flows.
Figure 5. Drop Rate after 1.5 sec idle period for homoge-
In conclusion, simulations show CWV restarts quickly
and hence higher received rate compare to standard TCP.
CWV shows best performance over a less congested path
by dropping fewer packets. The heterogeneous case shows
a higher received rate after an idle period CWV utilises
more bottleneck capacity than standard TCP. A quick
restart helps CWV to be fair to itself, and also shows
fairness to standard TCP by reducing the rate similar to
standard TCP rate in the longer period.
3.2. Impact over Long Network Path
We also considered the performance of standard TCP
and TCP-CWV over a Long Fat Network (LFN) [17],
specifically one with a long network path. Hence, in this
experiment, the one-way delay is increased to 300 ms (i.e.,
more than 600 ms RTT). CWV has an advantage of quick
restart after an idle period. Figure 6 shows the average
received rate and Figure 7 shows the loss rate for the
Figure 6. Average received rate vs. number of flows after a
2 sec idle period with homogeneous-flows over a long net-
work path.
Figure 7. Drop Rate 2 sec idle period in homogeneous-flows
over a long network path.
scenario with homogeneous-flows.
This shows that TCP-CWV is able to achieve a higher
received rate at moderate congestion without severe router
buffer overflow. The graphs also show that TCP-CWV
allows a sender to maintain a cwnd sufficiently large to
utilise the capacity after an idle period.
3.3. Delay Jitter
Figure 8 shows the one-way delay measured as the ap-
plication-generated packet time at the sender and recep-
tion time at the receiver socket buffer by the application
against the packet sequence number. The queuing delay
induced by TCP-CWV is substantially decreased with
respect to standard TCP for a restart time after an idle
period longer than one RTO. This benefit can be ob-
served providing that cwnd is not reduced to RW, which
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
Figure 8. Average one-way delay over 25 standard TCP and
TCP-CWV connections in the homogeneous-flows scenario
(1.5 sec idle period and 200 ms propagation delay).
is for idle periods of up to several RTOs. This result il-
lustrates that the TCP-CWV flows suffer high delay only
at the beginning of a connection because of the three-way
handshake and the initial slow-start phase.
The maximum delay variation is strongly dependent
on the duration of the idle period. In this simulation, the
best performance improvements are observed between
five to twenty-two RTTs of idle period duration. For less
than five or shorter RTT, CWV performs the same as
standard TCP (i.e., there is no reduction of cwnd) and
after a longer RTT (e.g., more than 20 RTTs) CWV de-
cays the cwnd to a value almost equal to that of the ini-
tial window of standard TCP.
3.4. Application-Limited Period
The increase of cwnd allowed by standard TCP during an
application-limited period can be inappropriate (i.e., al-
lowing the cwnd to grow unnecessarily while transmit-
ting at a rate lower than the available capacity). If there
is a change in application transmission rate, this behav-
iour could lead to many packet drops. This is because the
value of cwnd no longer reflects the current path capacity.
CWV was proposed to enhance congestion control by
continuously updating cwnd during application-limited
periods to avoid unnecessary increase during applica-
tion-limited periods.
To create an application-limited scenario, we arrange
for the sending rate of a CBR application to be lowered
to a steady-state from 512 kb/s to 12 kb/s (for instance,
when a high bit rate media flow switches to a low bit rate
media flow). After an interval of several RTOs, the ap-
plication rate is restored to its original rate.
At the same time, the shared link capacity is changed
from 100 Mb/s to 2 Mb/s, as in the previous set of simu-
lations. The average rate of packet arrival at the receiver
was measured (over a several RTOs starting from the
capacity discontinuity) as a measure of the response time,
and the packet drop rate at the bottleneck as a measure of
capacity sharing of the congestion control protocol. Ta-
ble 2 shows the configuration parameters and we used
the same topology of Figure 2.
3.4.1. Heterogeneous-Flow Scenario
Results for an application-limited scenario show that
TCP-CWV is conservative and cannot respond quickly to
a change in the application rate, whereas standard TCP
allows TCP to immediately send additional packets (see
Figure 9). Hence, application-limited period responses
are opposite to the idle period responses for standard
Table 2. Configuration parameters for simulations with an
application-limited period.
Bottleneck Link
Bandwidth (Mb/s) 100
One-way Link Delay (ms) 100
Router Buffer Size BDP
Access Links
Bandwidth (Mb/s) 100
One-way Link Delay (ms) 1
TCP Configurations
Maximum Segment Size (B) 1460
Maximum Advertised Window Size (kB) 1500
Minimum Retransmission Timeout (sec) 1
Simulation duration (sec) 40
CBR traffic Parameters
Size (bytes) 1460
Rate (Kbps) 512
Change of Rate-application-limited period (Kbps) 12
Application-limited period
Duration of periods (sec) 0.5 to 5
Changed Bottleneck Bandwidth (Mb/s) 2
Flow/Drop monitor duration (RTT) 10
Figure 9. Average packet arrival rate at the receiver for
standard TCP and TCP-CWV connections in the heteroge-
neous-flows scenario after 5 sec application-limited period
and 100 ms delay path.
3.4.2. Homogeneous-Flow Scenario
Figure 10 confirms that in the case of homogeneous-
flows standard TCP provides higher received rate than
On the other hand, the inefficient cwnd growth offered
by standard TCP results in a much larger packet drop
rate (Figure 11 highlights) with respect to CWV. Chang-
ing the size of the interval the application rate remains at
low rate, we observed that the longer the interval, the
lower the correlation between the cwnd and the band-
width-delay product.
Finally, CWV has no benefit to the application be-
cause it offers a lower received rate compared to standard
Figure 10. Average arrival rate at the receiver after 5 sec
idle period in homogeneous-flows scenario for CWV and
standard TCP connections.
Figure 11. Drop rate after 5 sec application-limited period
in homogeneous-flows scenario for CWV and standard
TCP connections.
TCP. CWV also is less desirable for the shared bottle-
neck compared to current TCP. However, it is observed
that the CWV application-limited period approach is safe
for these transient events.
4. Discussion
Standard TCP takes a conservative approach during an
idle period that lasts more than one RTO. It reduces the
cwnd to the RW and then slow-starting back to the ap-
plication rate. This approach is beneficial to the network,
but does not benefit the application (as shown by the
reduced average received rates for the case of Heteroge-
neous, Homogeneous flows and the packet drop rates in
Figures 3-5 respectively).
TCP-CWV mitigates the poor network performance
of standard TCP by reducing the cwnd by one half for
every RTO period that the application is idle. This bene-
fits the application allowing an application to send pack-
ets much faster after a restart from an idle period. How-
ever, CWV impacts the network more if there is a tran-
sient event that changes the network path characteristics
while the application was idle (shown by the increased
average receive rates and packet drop rates in Figures 4
& 5).
During an application-limited period of more than one
RTO, standard TCP behaves more aggressively com-
pared to TCP-CWV. Standard TCP benefits an applica-
tion-limited application by the faster sending, whereas
TCP-CWV behaves more conservatively. The conserva-
tive approach of TCP-CWV ensures that in transient
conditions, the impact caused by TCP-CWV flows re-
starting from a application-limited period is less com-
pared to standard TCP (as shown by the lower average
received rates and packet drop rates in Figures 10 & 11).
Table 3 shows the comparison as response after an idle
or application-limited period.
Table 3. Comparison of response after idle or applica-
tion-limited period: Standard TCP and TCP-CWV.
proaches Period Standard TCP
[RFC 5681]
[RFC 2861]
Idle period
but losses appli-
cation fairness.
probing. Fair to
the application.
1. Fairness
tion Appliction-
limited period
increases the
cwnd, good for
the application
Decay cwnd to
utilise the capac-
ity. Conservative
approach, not fair
to the application
Idle period
Safe probing.
Good for the
Internet path
Probing is not
safe So, no
benefit for the
2. Fairness
to Path
Higher drops in
transient events,
bad for the path
Less drops to
transient events
So fair to the path
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
Our analysis of TCP-CWV poses a question: What is
best for application designers that develop bursty appli-
cations? TCP-CWV would benefit an application if it
exhibits regular idleness. However TCP-CWV would be
of benefit only if the idle period was several RTOs. Ap-
plications exhibiting very large idle periods (tens of sec-
onds) would experience no benefit from using TCP-
CWV, since the behaviour would be the same as for
standard TCP. Although TCP-CWV benefits the network
in an application-limited scenario, the conservative ap-
proach of TCP-CWV does not provide an incentive to
application to use this.
5. Conclusions
The current TCP specification defines a conservative
slow start algorithm that can penalise an application
which restarts from an idle period, making it undesirable
for interactive bursty applications. TCP-CWV suggests a
remedy to this problem, allowing a faster restart after an
application was idle. This is seen to be beneficial to the
application, and suggests the need for appropriate meth-
ods can be found, that balance the threat of network col-
lapse against application performance. TCP-CWV exhib-
its a much more aggressive faster restart behavior after
idle, however when an application is limited by the ap-
plication rate, TCP-CWV has a much more conservative
approach. Standard TCP has a more aggressive approach
for application-limited flows. This non uniform approach
of TCP-CWV has been a deterrent for it being deployed
widely in the Internet, with TCP-CWV only deployed in
the Linux OS (enabled by default).
Our future work will propose a new method(s) appli-
cable to both idle and application-limited periods. We
hope our work would lead to standards paving a way for
application designers. The availability of methods that
effectively support burst applications will provide an
incentive for application designers to change to use a
standard method to share the network resources in a
more efficient and friendly manner.
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