13) who showed Staphylococcus aureus was responsible for the majority of skin and soft tissue infection. S. aureus causes invasive and life threatening infection such as abscesses, and sepsis [16] . Others workers concluded different frequencies of isolation e.g. Rajan showed that 44.6% of the wounds studied were infected by S. aureus [17] . Almost 25% of the infections recorded in the present study were collectively caused by other Gram-positive bacteria which was almost similar to that obtained by Alwan and his co-workers [18] . Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis, Kocuria rosea and Kocuria kristinae were isolated for the first time among patients of Baghdad district. However, the pathogens were also recorded elsewhere [19] - [24] . Therefore, these new isolated bacteria should be considered as a true pathogen contributed to clinical sepsis and proper treatment should be provided to all susceptible patients [19] [20] . Moreover, isolation of Kocuria kristinae with others bacteria was similar to that obtained by some authors who recorded K. kristinae as commensal of humans, animal and environment to be contaminants of wounds [21] [22] . In the present study, among the Gram negatives, Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated with the highest frequency (12.4%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.5%) from the total isolates of wound and the two types were isolated by Al-Ali who found that the isolation frequencies by both were 19.5% and 39.5% respectively [25] . E. coli was isolated with percentage of 5.7% which was different from that obtained by Rashid et al. who showed almost 2% of their isolates from wounds was E. coli [26] . In contrast, Idomir et al. estimated an incidence of by E. coli to be 11.5% [27] [28] . The isolation patterns of the other pathogens showed different frequencies compared to other workers [18] [27] [28] [29] .

The present study revealed that complement C5a was very high in concentration at 120 hours of patient residence in hospital with average value of 4898 pg/ml followed by 4765 pg/ml at 48 hours in acute-phase wound infection The most receptive interpretation that the mechanisms of accelerated healing were associated with lack of C5aR1 signaling, and C5a as well as reduced recruitment of inflammatory cells to wounds along with their reduced activation. The increased angiogenesis and high levels of mast cells contribute to more efficient healing process [30] . The same opinion concluded by Rafail and co-workers who showed that C3 and C5 deficiency revealed a reduction in inflammatory and increased accumulation of mast cells and advanced angiogenesis [31] . The increased C5a after 48 hrs in the wounds mentioned by Jang and co-workers showed that after wounds infection the activation of complement system, split fragment C5a and C3a augment inflammatory responses e.g. increased blood flow and vascular permeability and facilitate migration of neutrophils and monocytes to the inflamed tissue also induce mast cell to release histamine and TNF-α which contribute to the proliferation of the inflammatory response. C5a has the ability to stimulate cells to secrete neuropeptides and neurotrophins as the main roles of pain after wounds as well as C5a sensitized C-fiber afferent response to heat in the incision, as noted C5a concentration 1000 pg/ml at 24 hrs begins to decline at 48hrs with concentration 800 pg/ml in the clean wounds and present any infection may causes long wounds healing due to prolonged inflammatory process [32] . The elevated concentrations of C5a described in sepsis due to bacteria particularly Gram-negative types which showed a higher concentration of C5a as compared to Gram-positive bacteria which revealed less elevation in this complement. C5a is an important mediator of neutrophil dysfunction, acting via the major C5a receptor CD88, and CD88 is not directly phagocytic but is marker of exposure to C5a which inhibits phagocytosis [33] [34] . Finally, all workers have indicated that reduction of complement component and activation causes improve wound healing, for this reason may be the concentration in control wounds were less than acute-phase of wounds [34] .

5. Conclusion

The present study revealed that most of acute-phase wound infections were caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis, Kocuria rosea and Kocuria kristinae were isolated for the first time among patients of Baghdad district. Acute-phase wound infection by Gram-negative bacteria caused a higher elevation in C5a concentration of patients compared to infection by Gram-positive types.

Ethical Approval

Ethical clearance for the study was obtained from the Committee of Higher Studies in College of Medicine, University of Tikrit. The researcher did not in any way expose participants of the study to physical or psychological harm. Participation in the study was strictly voluntary with the informed consent of participants that guaranteed their right to privacy. All authors hereby declare that all experiments have been examined and approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 declaration of Helsinki.

Limitations

Single region data of displacement area is not generalized. For this reason a survey of the whole area can reflect the whole region should be done.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Cite this paper

Al-Jebouri, M.M. and Al-Mahmood, B.Y.R. (2019) Prevalence of Different Types of Micro-Organisms and Levels of Complement C5a in Patients with Acute-Phase Wound Infections. Open Journal of Pathology, 9, 19-28. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpathology.2019.92003

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