ween level of occupational stress and demographic variables
Table 2. Frequency and percentage distribution of samples according to their level of occupational stress (N = 80).
Table 3. Frequency and percentage distribution of samples according to their level of knowledge before the administration of PTP (N = 80).
Table 4. Area wise mean, standard deviation and mean percentage scores among the samples in the pre-test.
Table 5. Frequency and mean percentage distribution of samples according to their pre-test and post-test level of knowledge (N = 80).
Table 6. Mean, SD and “t” value showing the difference between mean pre-test and post-test level of knowledge (N = 80).
t79 = 1.66, p < 0.05, *Significant.
reveals that there is a significant association between number of night shifts and occupational stress (χ2 = 12.32, p < 0.05), and no association between the other selected demographic variables and the level of occupational stress (Table 7).
Association between the pre test level of knowledge and selected demographic variables reveals that there is no association between the pre-test level of knowledge score and demographic variables of the security guards, Hence, there is no significant association between the level of pre test knowledge score and selected demographic variables at 0.05 level of significance (Table 8).
Table 7. Association between levels of occupational stress and demographic variables (N = 80).
NS = Not significant, χ2 (3) =5.991, p < 0.05, *Significant.
Table 8. Association between the levels of Knowledge and selected demographic variables (N = 80).
NS = Not significant.
Section I: Description of demographic data
The majority of samples that is 33 (41.3%) are in the age group of 30 - 39 years, 8 (10%) are in the age group of ≥50 years, 30 (37.5%) are in the age group of 40 - 49 years, and 9 (11.2%) are in the age group of 20 - 29. Based on Gender classification, majority of the samples that is, 54 (67.5%) were men and 26 (32.5%) were women in the study. Most of the samples 33 (41.2%) belonged to the Christian community, 17 (21.3%) were from the Muslim community and 30 (37.5%) belonged to the Hindu community.
Majority of the samples 45 (56.25%) are living in urban area and 35 (43.75%) are living in rural area. Most of the respondents, 40 (50%) are having a monthly income of rupees 3001 - 6000, 19 (23.75%) are having a monthly income rupees 6001 - 10,000 and 21 (26.25%) are having a monthly income of rupees ≤ 3000. 33 (41.3%) have primary education, 7 (8.75%) have pre university/diploma education, 30 (36.58%) have high school education where as 10 (12.5%) doesn’t have any formal education. Majority of the respondents, 47 (58.75%) are married and 33 (41.25%) are single. Majority of the participants, 29 (36.25%) have an experience of 3.1 - 6 years, 8 (10%) have an experience of >9 years, 23 (26.75%) have an experience of 0 - 3 years and 20 (25%) have 6.1 - 9 years of experience.
Most of the participants, 39 (48.75%) have 8 working hours per day, 16 (20%) have 12 working hours per day and 25 (31.25%) have 10 working hours per day. Most of the participants, 40 (50%) have 2 night shifts per week, 11 (13.75%) have 4 weekly night shifts and 29 (36.25%) have 3 weekly night shifts. Most of the respondents, 55 (68.75%) doesn’t have any previous history of illness and 25 (31.25%) have diseases like Hypertension and Diabetes.
Section II: Assessment of level of occupational stress
In the present study occupational stress score showed that the majority of the security guards that is 59 (73.7%) were under moderate level of occupational stress and 21 (26.3%) were under severe level of occupational stress. None of them experienced mild level of occupational stress.
The findings of the present study were consistent with a descriptive study done in Shanghai, China among 527 nurses from 41 hospitals to assess the occupational burnout and its association with occupational stress. Results showed that most of the nurses, that is 74.76% were affected with moderate level of occupational stress and are very prone to have occupational burnout, 27.13% were having severe level of occupational stress which was strongly associated with work-related stress. Interventions in reducing occupational stress are needed to reduce the burden of burnout in Chinese nurses .
Section III: Pre test level of knowledge
In the present study the pre-interventional score showed that the majority of the samples 66 (82.5%) had inadequate knowledge regarding occupational stress and its management before the administration of PTP, 14 (17.5%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge and none of them had adequate knowledge.
The findings of the present study were consistent with a descriptive survey conducted in Poland, among 210 employees to assess their knowledge regarding sources and consequences of work stress. Stressors intrinsic to the job (mostly work overload) were recognized as best known to employees (67.62%). The second place was occupied by stressors originating from interpersonal relationships at work (51.9% of respondents pointed out that problem). Almost no one (0.48%) mentioned home-work interference as a source of occupational stress. According to the respondents’ opinion, occupational stress mostly results in health decline. The employees who participated in the study believe that the employer (13.81%) or the superior (19.05%) is responsible for psychosocial risks prevention at the work place. Almost a half of subjects (46.67%) did not know whether there are any law regulations on psychosocial risk at work in Poland. The study concluded that the respondents showed an average level of knowledge of psychosocial risk at the work place and knew almost nothing about occupational stress prevention. The results of the study point to the need for systematic education of employees about stress and stress related issues .
Section IV: Evaluation of effectiveness of PTP
The findings of the present study showed that overall post-test mean percentage is 63.53% with a mean of 22.86 ± 2.65 which is higher compared to mean percentage (26.83%) and mean and standard deviation (10.06 ± 2.36) of the pre test. The data also shows that the maximum gain that is 37.5% occurred in the area of general aspects and causes of occupational stress and minimum gain, that is 35% occurred in effects of occupational stress. The mean post-test score (22.86) is higher than the pre-test knowledge score (10.06). The calculated t’ value (t 79 = 37.11) is greater than the table value (t 79 = 1.664) at 0.05 level of significance shows that there is significant difference between the pre-test and post-test knowledge score.
The findings of the present study were consistent with a randomized control trial done among 46 supervisors to find out the effectiveness of education programme on stress reduction in Japan. Experimental group consisted of 24 and control group consisted of 22 supervisors respectively. A single-session education program that included the guidelines for worker mental health promotion was given to the intervention group. The education program was composed of a basic education lecture and active listening training. The education favorably affected supervisor knowledge (F = 7.92; p = 0.001). As for behavior, the intervention effect was marginally statistically significant (F = 2.51; p = 0.088). In conclusion, the provision of necessary information and useful skills to supervisors seems to improve supervisor knowledge and behavior regarding stress management at the workplace for at least six months .
Section V: Association between the level of occupational stress and selected demographic variables
The study findings revealed that there is a significant association between number of night shifts and level of occupational stress (χ2 = 12.32) at 0.05 level of significance. Other demographic variables didn’t show any association with the level of occupational stress at 0.05 level of significance.
The findings of the present study were consistent with a cross sectional study conducted in China among 2613 nurses from 20 hospitals to assess the job stress perceived by them. The study findings showed that Mean Personal Strain Questionnaire score was 86.9. There was a significant association between the stress score with role insufficiency, responsibility and night shifts. The study concluded that Occupational health education and occupational training programmes may be necessary to improve the knowledge and ability of nurses to cope with job demands and reduce occupational stress .
Section VI: Association between the level of knowledge and selected demographic variables
The study findings revealed that there is no significant association between pre interventional knowledge score and selected demographic variables.
The results were explained by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the findings of the study:
1) The occupational stress assessment findings revealed that the majority of the participants, 59 (73.7%) were under a moderate level of occupational stress and 21 (26.3%) were under a severe level of occupational stress.
2) The pre test findings revealed that the majority of the subjects, 66 (82.5%) had an inadequate level of knowledge regarding occupational stress and its management and remaining, 14 (17.5%) had a moderately adequate level of knowledge and none of them had an adequate level of knowledge. The post test results had shown that 67 subjects (83.7%) gained adequate knowledge and remaining 13 (16.3%) had moderately adequate knowledge.
3) Following the administration of planned teaching programme, there was a significant gain in mean post test knowledge score (22.86) compared to that of mean pre-test knowledge scores (10.06). This indicates that teaching programme was effective in increasing the knowledge of security guards regarding occupational stress and its management.
4) It was found that there was a significant association between the number of night shifts and level of occupational stress and no association was found between other demographic variables and level of occupational stress.
5) It was also found that there was no significant association between the demographic variables and pre-test knowledge scores.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
Cite this paper
Siddesh, M. and Ravindra, H.N. (2020) Assess the Level of Occupational Stress and to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on Knowledge Regarding Occupational Stress and Its Management among Security Guards of a Selected Organization, Shimoga, Karnataka. Open Journal of Nursing, 10, 87-100. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojn.2020.102005