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Early Marriage in Girls 12 - 18 Years: Frequency and Predisposing Factors in the City of Kabinda, Province Lomani/DRC Congo

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105268    58 Downloads   119 Views  

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To determine the frequency and risk factors of early marriage among girls 12 - 18 years in the city of KABINDA. Material and methods: This study is descriptive cross. It was conducted in 5304 households in two Kamukungu health areas and Kilo located KAMUKUNGU neighborhood. The sample consisted of 1227 women of childbearing age, married at an early stage that had been subjected to a questionnaire that was used as data collection tool. Results: The early marriage rate among girls 12 - 18 years is 23.1%. Factors encouraging this early marriage are poverty (continued to unemployed parents, resourceful and load carriers) (33.9%), culture and custom (31.4%), family and social pressure (17.9%) and non-use of contraceptive methods (17.2%). Conclusion: Early marriage in our communities is an all too common phenomenon in the DRC in general and particularly in the province of South Kivu, or one in four women currently aged 40 - 45 had married before the age of 18. This is also the situation in the province of Lomani and precisely in the city of KABINDA. To do this, it would popularize laws and legal texts on the protection of children especially in education, and marriage continues to raise awareness of the city of KABINDA and prevent child marriage by bringing to 18, the minimum age for marriage and support oriented programs to protect and promote the rights of adolescent girls.

1. Introduction

Worldwide, the majority of teenage pregnancies are married and their entourage insists they have a child. These may too early and unwanted pregnancy because they are marginalized, uneducated, married early or they belong to poor families [1] .

According to the WHO [2] , almost 16 million girls aged 15 to 19 years and some 1 million young people aged under 15 give birth to children each year and most live in low-income countries or intermediate, in poor, low education or rural. For SCATE AFRICA/APF [3] , nearly 112 of the world’s births still occur among girls 15 to 19 years. The teenage pregnancy remains a major killer of the mother and child and contributes to the cycle of poor health and poverty [4] . In some countries extramarital pregnancies are rare, girls often experience social pressure to marry and have children early. Some teens do not know how to prevent pregnancy that sex education is lacking in many countries. They sometimes ashame or do not dare to resort to contraceptive services because contraceptives are too expensive or are widely and legally unavailable, and sexually active adolescents are less likely to use them [5] .

In Africa, early marriage problem arises with acuity. A study in Burkina by INSD and UNICEF in 2006, reveals that women whose age range is between 15 to 19 years, numerous of these, 25% are cohabiting 30.9% of them living in rural and urban 9.5% [6] .

According to the study report “DHS IV and NEA” cited by KELLY FATOUMATA DJIRE [7] , it reveals that the evolution of early marriage rate in MALI is on track to be widespread in urban areas than in rural area. In the region of Mopti and GAO, about 75% of marriages are between 9 and 17 years. In Timbuktu, the rate was 58.3% with early between 8 and 17 years. The same source shows some causes more detail including certain religions “encourage” marriage at the onset in the early rules, precocious puberty, strengthening family ties, friendship and neighborhood, saving the virginity of the girl and the honor of the family, low education of girls, positive values assigned to procreation, the lack of information on the risks associated with early marriage, poverty.

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, early marriage among girls is a scourge and is a real public health problem because according to a study by BASEDEKE. A. [8] , early marriage in our communities is an all too common phenomenon in the DRC in general and particularly in the province of South Kivu, or one in four women currently aged 40 - 45 had married before the age of 18. In this study, the following causes of early marriage were among others: blind imitation (want to do as the other girls), early pregnancy, influence of some parents … This type of marriage has serious consequences for the adolescent’s health, in particular: the girl’s growth stoppage, divorce, family instability, marital infidelity, polygamy, polyandry, the disruption of the girl’s health. daughter education etc..

In Kabinda, capital of the new province of Lomani dismembered but still rural, cases of early marriage were perceptible. This observation has led us to conduct this study.

2. Material and Method

This study is a descriptive cross. It was conducted in 5304 households in two Kamukungu health areas and Kilo located KAMUKUNGU neighborhood. The sample consisted of 1227 women of childbearing age, married early.

3. Results

Table 1 shows that the early marriage rate among girls 12 - 18 years is 23.1%.

Table 2 shows that the age of 15 years is the most affected by the phenomenon of early marriage is 25.6%.

Table 3 shows that girls born to farmer parents marry so quickly or 28.8% against 18.7% from the family of resourceful parents.

In light of Table 4, poverty (continued to unemployed parents, resourceful and load carriers) is deemed one cause of early marriage among girls, with 506

Table 1. Frequency of cases of early marriage in the city of KABINDA.

Table 2. Distribution of cases of early marriage age.

Table 3. Distribution of cases of early marriage by occupation of household charge.

Table 4. Distribution of cases of early marriage as factors favoring.

cases in 1227 or 33.9% are followed by culture and custom with 386 cases or 31.4% of cases, family and social pressure and the non-use of contraceptive methods with 220 cases, respectively 17.9% and 213 cases or 17.2%.

Table 5 shows that 680 girls married early 55.4% had reached the level of secondary education, against 472 or 38.4% have a primary level of study.

It appears from Table 6 that 576 girls married early 46.9% are in the polygamous marriage against 483 cases or 39.4% are monogamous.

4. Discussion

4.1. Early Marriage Rate

The frequency of early marriage among girls 12 - 18 years is 23.1%. This result agrees with the statement of UNFPA [9] confirming that “year worldwide, the majority of teenage pregnancy are married and their entourage insists they have a child.”

4.2. The Age of Early Marriage

In this study 2 girls on 1227 or 0.6% were married early at the age of 12 years and 315 girls 25.6% are married and 15 years. these results are similar to those of the study by UNFPA [9] which showed that over 30% of girls in developing countries are married before the age of 18; about 14% are married before age 15

Table 5. Distribution of cases of early marriage by level of education.

Table 6. Distribution of cases of early marriage as forms of marriage.

years. Early marriage is a risk factor for early pregnancy and cause adverse reproductive health. In addition, early marriage extends the cycle of under education and poverty.

4.3. Level of Education

In relation to education, 680 girls married early 55.4% had reached the level of secondary education, against 472 or 38.4% have a primary level of study. These results contradict those of JESSAMINEMariam. M’s study [10] , which indicated that the occurrence of unwanted teenage pregnancies is partly explained by a context marked by a pronounced low education, aided by the natalist tradition also pushing for an early marriage.

4.4. Job of Household and Responsible Factors Favoring Early Marriage

Girls born to farmer parents marry so quickly or 28.8% against 18.7% from resourceful parents. Compared to promoting factors, poverty is deemed cause of early marriage among girls, with 506 cases in 1227 or 33.9% is followed by culture and custom with 386 cases or 31.4% of cases. These results are compared with data from the National Strategic Plan for 2014-2020 multisectoral vision) demonstrating that the DRC is characterized by a high prevalence of poverty is estimated at 71% in 2005. WHO/UNFPA [11] Adds that poverty is a factor that is often used to explain the phenomenon of early marriage.

5. Conclusion

Early marriage in our communities is an all too common phenomenon in the DRC in general and particularly in the province of South Kivu, or one in four women currently aged 40 - 45 had married before the age of 18. This is also the situation in the province of Lomani and specifically in the town of KABINDA. To do this, it would popularize laws and legal texts on the protection of children especially in education, and marriage continues to raise awareness of the city of KABINDA and prevent child marriage by bringing to 18, the minimum age for marriage and support oriented programs to protect and promote the rights of adolescent girls.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Cite this paper

Kalum, A. , Kabiengele, D. , Mposhi, D. , Kalenga, R. , Mpaka, B. , Mabondo, M. , Odia, K. , Kabeya, E. , Bukasa, V. , Mubala, E. and Tshilonda, J. (2019) Early Marriage in Girls 12 - 18 Years: Frequency and Predisposing Factors in the City of Kabinda, Province Lomani/DRC Congo. Open Access Library Journal, 6, 1-6. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1105268.

References

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