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Breed Characterization: Tools and Their Applications

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101438    855 Downloads   1,495 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

During the subsequent history of livestock, the main evolutionary forces of mutation, selective breeding, adaptation, isolation and genetic drift have created an enormous diversity of local populations. Organizing and documentation of basic tools for breed characterization are the major aims of the review with the scope of available markers. This farm animal genetic diversity has a primary requirement to meet current production needs in various environments. In addition, farm animal genetic diversity has a great application of allowing sustained genetic improvement, and to facilitate rapid adaptation to changing breeding objectives. Furthermore, animal genetic diversity provides wider range opportunity for selection and improving. The nondescript breed could be Identified and characterizing by morphological or/and molecular markers to know their potential, to know their special adaptive trait and their status for further actions (improvement, conservation). Markers are conspicuous object used to distinguish or to show variation in population or individual level. Morphological markers normally refer to external animal characteristics which can be obtained by direct visual observation and measurement and used in the identification, classification, and characterization of genetic evolution of different species or populations. Since the measurement and identification of animal morphological traits usually take a long time and limited application in evaluation of qualitative traits, molecular markers have developed quickly, and they are becoming more and more informed. Whatever data type (morphological and molecular data) needs appropriate statistical application. In general, diversity, markers and statistical application are the preliminary tools of breed characterization and breed improvements.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Hailu, A. and Getu, A. (2015) Breed Characterization: Tools and Their Applications. Open Access Library Journal, 2, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1101438.

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