Share This Article:

Comparison and Evaluation of Two Analytical Methods for Cation Exchange Capacity and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage of Five Soil Types in Central Sudan

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:302KB) PP. 311-318
DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2015.512029    3,455 Downloads   4,124 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Twenty-six soil samples were collected from five soil profiles at different climatological and ecological regions in central Sudan. Soil profile was dug in each studied area and morphological profile description was carried out for different horizons. All samples were analyzed using two different methods to determine Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Statistical analysis (T-test) was used in order to investigate the differences between soil samples for the studied locations. Significant differences appeared when compared the two methods for CEC determination at Gedaref area, Wad Medani and Nile flood plain and that appeared in evaluation of ESP at Nile flood plain and Shambat area. The results also revealed that, the developed method used in this study was more practical, simple and reliable for determination of CEC and ESP as the currently used in most soil laboratories. In addition, it will be safer than the other methods in some problematic soils. The adoption of this developed method is advisable because it is less time consuming as it omits the washing step. In contrast, the old method cannot be a good substitute in laboratories which have no possibility to determine sodium by using flame photometer. We conclude that when the developed method is used to determine CEC and ESP time will be saved, that fewer amounts of chemicals will be used and that accurate results will be achieved.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Elfaki, J. , Gafer, M. , Sulieman, M. and Ali, M. (2015) Comparison and Evaluation of Two Analytical Methods for Cation Exchange Capacity and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage of Five Soil Types in Central Sudan. Open Journal of Soil Science, 5, 311-318. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2015.512029.

References

[1] Shepherd, K.D. and Walsh. M.G. (2002) Development of Reflectance Spectral Libraries for Characterization of Soil Properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66, 988-998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2002.9880
[2] Way, J.T. (1852) On the Power of Soils to Absorb Manure. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 13, 123-143.
[3] Lewis, D.R. (1949) Analytical Data on Reference Clay Materials. Sect. 3, Base-Exchange Data, Reference Clay Minerals. A.P.I. Research Project 49, Preliminary Report No. 7, Columbia University, New York, 91.
[4] Mehlich, A. (1942) Rapid Estimation of Base-Exchange Properties of Soils. Soil Science, 53, 1-14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-194201000-00001
[5] Chhabra, R., Pleysier, J. and Cremers, A. (1975) The Measurement of the Cation Exchange Capacity and Exchangeable Cations in Soils: A New Method. Proceedings of the International Clay Conference, 16-23 July 1975, Mexico City, 439-449.
[6] Bower, C.A., Reitemeier, R.F. and Fireman, M. (1952) Exchangeable Cation Analysis of Saline and Alkali Soils. Soil Science, 73, 251-261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-195204000-00001
[7] Yaalon, D.H., Schuylenborgh, J. and Slager, S. (1962) The Determination of Cation Exchange Characteristics of Saline and Calcareous Soils. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 113, 194-199.
[8] Bascomb, C.L. (1964) Rapid Method for the Determination of Cation Exchange Capacity of Calcareous and Non-Calcareous Soil. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 15, 821-823.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740151201
[9] Carpena, O., Law, A. and Vahtras, K. (1972) Determination of Exchangeable Cations in Calcareous Soils. Soil Science, 113, 194-199.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-197203000-00008
[10] Tucker, B.M. (1974) Laboratory Procedures for Cation Exchange Measurement on Soils. Technical Paper No. 23, CSIRO Division of Soils, Brisbane.
[11] Garman, M. and Hesse, P.R. (1975) Cation Exchange Capacity of Gypsic Soils. Plant and Soil, 42, 477-480.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00010022
[12] Papanicolaou, E.P. (1976) Determination of Cation Exchange Capacity of Calcareous Soils and Their Percent Base Saturation. Soil Science, 121, 65-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-197602000-00001
[13] Mario, P. and Rhoades, J.D. (1977) Determining Cation Exchange Capacity: A New Procedure for Calcareous and Gypsiferous Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 41, 524-528.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1977.03615995004100030018x
[14] FAO (2006) Report on the Ad Hoc Expert Consultation on Land Evaluation. Rome, Italy, 6-8.
[15] Soil Survey Staff (2014) Key to Soil Taxonomy. A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. 2nd Edition, Agriculture Hand Book No. 436, USDA, Washington DC.
[16] Chapman, H.D. and Partt, P.F. (1961) Methods of Analysis of Soils, Plants and Waters. University or California. Berkeley.
[17] Day, P.R. (1965) Particle Fractionation and Particle Size Analysis. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Agronomy, 9, 545-566. American Society of Agronomy, Madison.
[18] Olsen, S.R. and Sommers, L.E. (1982) Phosphorus. In: Page, A.L. and Miller, R.H., Eds., Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, 2nd Edition, Agronomy Monograph 9, ASA and SSSA, Madison, 403-430.
[19] Snedecor, G.W. (1965) Statistical Methods. 5. Aufl. The Iowa State University Press, Ames.
[20] Okazaki, R., Smith, H.W. and Moodie, C.D. (1962) Development of a Cation Exchange Capacity Procedure with Few Inherent Errors. Soil Science, 93, 343-349.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-196205000-00009
[21] Frink, C.R. (1964) The Effects of Wash Solvents on Cation Exchange Capacity Measurements. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 28, 506-511.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1964.03615995002800040018x

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.