Share This Article:

Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping Using Lineament Density on Standard DRASTIC Model: Case Study in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:3685KB) PP. 644-667
DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.710057    2,614 Downloads   3,128 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Groundwater is the most important source of water in the Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin. In this study, to generate a map of groundwater pollution vulnerability of the basin, the standard DRASTIC method has been applied. Due to the close relation between lineament density and groundwater flow and yield, the lineament density map was applied to the standard DRASTIC model in order to ensure accuracy towards the consideration of the effects of potential vulnerability to contamination. A lineament map is extracted from Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) satellite imagery using different techniques in remote sensing and GIS. The lineament density map illustrates that only six classes of lineament density can be identified ranged from (0 - 2.4). The lineament density map was rated and weighted and then converted to lineament index map. This index map is an additional parameter which was added to the standard DRASTIC model so as to map the modi?ed DRASTIC vulnerability in HSB. The standard vulnerability map, classified the basin into four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the modified model classified the area into four categories as well: very low (28.75%), low (14.31%), moderate (46.91%) and high (10.04%). The results demonstrate that there is no significant variation in the rate of vulnerability. Therefore, the nitrate concentration between two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) water wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it confirmed that the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant because of suitability in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this verification, it could be claimed that the effect of lineament density is weak on the vulnerability system in HSB, because of its low density value.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Abdullah, T. , Ali, S. , Al-Ansari, N. and Knutsson, S. (2015) Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping Using Lineament Density on Standard DRASTIC Model: Case Study in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Engineering, 7, 644-667. doi: 10.4236/eng.2015.710057.

References

[1] Aller, L., Bennett, T., Lehr, J.H., Petty, R.H. and Hackett, G. (1987) DRASTIC: A Standardized System for Evaluating Groundwater Pollution Potential Using Hydrogeologic Setting. USEPA Report 600/2-87/035, Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, Ada, 252 p.
[2] Evans, B.M. and Mayers, W.L. (1990) A GIS-Based Approach to Evaluating Regional Groundwater Pollution Potential with DRASTIC. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 45, 242-245.
[3] Fritch, T.G., McKnight, C.L., Yelderman Jr., J.C. and Arnold, J.G. (2000) An Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment of the Paluxy Aquifer, Central Texas, USA, Using GIS and a Modified DRASTIC Approach. Environmental Management, 25, 337-345.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002679910026
[4] Knox, R.C., Sabatini, D.A. and Canter, L.W. (1993) Subsurface Transport and Fate Processes. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton.
[5] Piscopo, G. (2001) Groundwater Vulnerability Map, Explanatory Notes, Castlereagh Catchment, NSW. Department of Land and Water Conservation, Parramatta.
http://www.water.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/549377/
quality_groundwater_castlereagh_map_notes.pdf
[6] Rundquist, D., Peters, A., Liping, D., Rodekohr, D., Ehrman, R. and Murray, G. (1991) State-Wide Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Nebraska Using the DRASTIC/GIS Model. Geo Cartography International, 6, 51-58.
[7] Secunda, S., Collin, M. and Melloul, A.J. (1998) Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Using a Composite Model Combining DRASTIC with Extensive Land Use in Israel’s Sharon Region. Journal of Environmental Management, 54, 39-57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jema.1998.0221
[8] Plymale, C.L. and Angle, M.P. (2002) Groundwater Pollution Potential of Fulton County, Ohio. Groundwater Pollution Potential, Report 45. Ohio Department of Natural Resources Division of Water, Water Resources Section, Columbus.
[9] Al-Rawabdeh, A.M., Al-Ansari, N.A., Al-Taani, A.A., Al-Khateeb, F.L. and Knutsson, S. (2014) Modeling the Risk of Groundwater Contamination Using Modified DRASTIC and GIS in Amman-Zerqa Basin, Jordan. Open Engineering, 4, 264-280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s13531-013-0163-0
[10] Lattman, H. and Parizek, R. (1964) Relationship between Fracture Traces and the Occurrence of Ground Water in Carbonate Rocks. Journal of Hydrology, 2, 73-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(64)90019-8
[11] Fernandes, D. and Rudolph, A. (2001) The Influence of Cenozoic Tectonics on the Groundwater Production Capacity of Fractured Zones: A Case Study in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hydrogeology Journal, 9, 151-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s100400000103
[12] MOCT (Ministry of Construction and Transportation) and KOWACO (Korea Water Resources Corporation) (1998) The Handbook of Drawing and Management of Hydrogeological Map. MOCT, Sejong City, 456.
[13] Ali, S.S. (2007) Geology and Hydrogeology of Sharazoor-Piramagroon Basin in Sulaimani Area, Northeastern Iraq. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 317 p.
[14] Huang, T.M., Pang, Z.H. and Edmunds, W.M. (2012) Soil Profile Evolution Following Land-Use Change: Implications for Groundwater Quantity and Quality. Hydrological Processes, 27, 1238-1252.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9302
[15] Buday, T. (1980) Stratigraphy. In: Kassab, I.I. and Abbas, M.J., Eds., The Regional Geology of Iraq, Vol. 1, Mining Investigation Publication, Baghdad, 445 p.
[16] Buday, T. and Jassim, S. (1987) Tectonics, Magmatism, and Metamorphism. In: Kassab, I.I. and Abbas, M.J., Eds., The Regional Geology of Iraq, Mining Investigation Publication, Baghdad, 445 p.
[17] Jassim, S.Z. and Goff, J.C. (Eds.) (2006) Geology of Iraq. D.G. Geo Survey, Mining Investigation Publication, Baghdad, 341 p.
[18] Bellen, R.C., Dunnington, H.V., Wetzel, R. and Morton, D. (1959) Lexique Stratigraphique International Asie, Iraq. Vol. 3C, 10a, 333 p.
[19] Baziany, M.M.Q. (2006) Stratigraphy and Sedimentology of Former Qulqula Conglomerate Formation, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq. Msc Thesis, Sulaimani University, Sulaymaniyah, 98 p.
[20] Baziany, M.M.Q. and Karim, K.H. (2007) A New Concept for the Origin of Accumulated Conglomerates, Previously Known as Qulqula Conglomerate Formation at Avroman-Halabja Area, NE-Iraq. Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining, 3, 33-41.
[21] FAO Representation in Iraq (2001) Reconnaissance Soil Map of the Three Northern. Governorates, Iraq. Map Scale =1:1000,000. Erbil Sub-Office.
[22] Stevanovic, Z. and Markovic, M. (2004) Hydrogeology of Northern Iraq: Climate, Hydrology, Geomorphology and Geology. Vol. 1, 2nd Edition, FAO, Rome.
[23] Groundwater Directorate in Sulaimaniyah (2014) Archive Department.
[24] Mehta, V.K., Walter, M.T. and DeGloria, D.S. (2006) A Simple Water Balance Model. Cornell University, Technical Report No.5, 9 p.
[25] Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M. (2006) Crop Evapotranspiration: Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56, 23.
[26] Lee, S. (2003) Evaluation of Waste Disposal Site Using the DRASTIC System in Southern Korea. Environmental Geology, 44, 654-664.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00254-003-0803-4
[27] Berding, F. (2003) Agro-Ecological Zoning of the Three Northern Governorates of Iraq, FAO Agricultural Rehabilitation Programme. Plant Production SS, Erbil.
[28] Hernandez, L.R., Bravo, J.A. and Mejuo, M.F. (2004) Map of Vulnerability to Groundwater Contamination. Excelentisima Diputacion Provincial de Alicante, Espana. A-1029-2004.
[29] Hamamin, D.F. (2011) Hydrogeological Assessment and Groundwater Vulnerability Map of Basara Basin, Sulaimani Governorate, Iraq, Kurdistan Region. Unpublished PhD Thesis, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, 174 p.
[30] PCI Geomatica (2001) PCI Geomatica User’s Guide Version 9.1. Richmond Hill.
[31] Al-Rawabdeh, A.M., Al-Ansari, N.A., Al-Taani, A.A. and Knutsson, S. (2013) A GIS-Based DRASTIC Model for Assessing Aquifer Vulnerability in Amman-Zerqa Groundwater Basin, Jordan. Engineering, 5, 490-504.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/eng.2013.55059
[32] Brouyère, S., Jeannin, P.Y., Dassargues, A., Goldscheider, N., Popescu, C., Sauter, M., Vadillo, I. and Zwahlen, F. (2001) Evaluation and Validation of Vulnerability Concepts Using a Physically Based Approach. 7th Conference on Limestone Hydrology and Fissured Media, Besan?on, 20-22 September 2001, 67-72.
[33] Perrin, J., Pochon, A., Jeannin, P.Y. and Zwahlen, F. (2004) Vulnerability Assessment in Karstic Areas: Validation by Field Experiments. Environmental Geology, 46, 237-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00254-004-0986-3
[34] Zwahlen, F. (Ed.) (2004) Vulnerability and Risk Mapping for the Protection of Carbonate (Karst) Aquifers, Final Report (COST Action 620). European Commission, Brussels.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.