Share This Article:

The Study of Relationship between Facial Width-to-Height Ratio and Aggression

DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.310001    3,161 Downloads   4,172 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

Facial-width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is a kind of facial feature that based on the overall facial in-formation and can be specifically measured. fWHR is closely related to the individual aggressive. The present study reviewed previous researches on aggression and measurement of fWHR, and described the relationship between fWHR and aggression under the external and internal factors. Moreover, the researchers explained them from the perspective of cognition, physics and evolutionary. In the future, the studies can deepen these fields to enrich the theories and effectively prevent and control violence in society.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Liu, Y. and He, J. (2015) The Study of Relationship between Facial Width-to-Height Ratio and Aggression. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/jss.2015.310001.

References

[1] Parke, R. and Slaby, R. (1983) The Development of Aggression. In: Mussen, P. and Hetherington, E., Eds., Handbook of Child Psychology: Socialization, Personality, and Social Development, Vol. 4, Wiley, New York, 457-641.
[2] Zhang, X.Y., Gao, D.G. and Fu, H. (2011) Dialectical Thinking Reduces Aggressive Tendencies. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 43, 42-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2011.00042
[3] Ozener, B. (2012) Facial Width-to-Height Ratio in a Turkish Population Is Not Sexually Dimorphic and Is Unrelated to Aggressive Behavior. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33,169-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2011.08.001
[4] Buss, A.H. and Perry, M. (1992) The Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.63.3.452
[5] Deaner, R.O., Goetz, S.M.M., Shattuck, K. and Schnotala, T. (2012) Body Weight, Not Facial Width-to-Height Ratio, Predicts Aggression in Pro Hockey Players. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 235-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2012.01.005
[6] Carré, J.M. and McCormick, C.M. (2008) In Your Face: Facial Metrics Predict Aggressive Behaviour in the Laboratory and in Varsity and Professional Hockey Players. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Series B Biological Sciences, 275, 2651-2656. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.0873
[7] Haselhuhn, M.P., Ormiston, M.E. and Wong, E.M. (2015) Men’s Facial Width-to-Height Ratio Predicts Aggression: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE, 10, e0122637. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122637
[8] Geniole, S.N. and McCormick, C.M. (2015) Facing Our Ancestors: Judgements of Aggression Are Consistent and Related to the Facial Width-to-Height Ratio in Men Irrespective of Beards. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36, 279-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.12.005
[9] Lefevre, C.E. and Lewis, G.J. (2014) Perceiving Aggression from Facial Structure: Further Evidence for a Positive Association with Facial Width-to-Height Ratio and Masculinity, but Not for Moderation by Self-Reported Dominance. European Journal of Personality, 28, 530-537.
[10] Geniole, S.N., Keyes, A.E., Mondloch, C.J., Carré, J.M. and McCormick, C.M. (2012) Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces. PLoS ONE, 7, e30366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030366
[11] Boshyan, J., Zebrowitz, L.A., Franklin, R.G., McCormick, C.M. and Carré, J.M. (2013) Age Similarities in Recognizing Threat from Faces and Diagnostic Cues. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69, 710-718.
[12] Short, L.A., Mondloch, C.J., McCormick, C.M., Carré, J.M., Ma, R., Fu, G. and Lee, K. (2012) Detection of Propensity for Aggression Based on Facial Structure Irrespective of Face Race. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 121-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2011.07.002
[13] Trebicky, V., Fialová, J., Kleisner, K., Roberts, S.C., Little, A.C. and Havlícek, J. (2015) Further Evidence for Links between Facial Width-to-Height Ratio and Fighting Success: Commentary on Zilioli et al. (2014). Aggressive Behavior, 41, 331-334.
[14] Weston, E.M., Friday, A.E. and Liò, P. (2007) Biometric Evidence that Sexual Selection Has Shaped the Hominin Face. PLoS One, 2, e710. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000710
[15] Alrajih, S. and Ward, J. (2014) Increased Facial Width-to-Height Ratio and Perceived Dominance in the Faces of the UK’s Leading Business Leaders. British Journal of Psychology, 105, 153-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12035
[16] Dou, D.H., Liu, X.C. and Zhang, Y.J. (2014) Babyface Effect: Babyface Preference and Overgeneralization. Advances in Psychological Science, 22, 760-771.
[17] Lefevre, C.E., Lewis, G.J., Bates, T.C., Dzhelyova, M., Coetzee, V., Deary, I.J. and Perrett, D.I. (2012) No Evidence for Sexual Dimorphism of Facial Width-to-Height Ratio in Four Large Adult Samples. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 623-627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.03.002
[18] Kramer, R.S., Jones, A.L. and Ward, R. (2012) A Lack of Sexual Dimorphism in Width-to-Height Ratio in White European Faces Using 2D Photographs, 3D Scans, and Anthropometry. Plos ONE, 7, e42705. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042705
[19] Bandura, A. (2001) Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1
[20] Pan, Q.M. (2005) Adolescent Aggressiveness: Dimension, Structure and Correlation Factors. Master’s Thesis, South China Normal University, Guangzhou.
[21] Berkowitz, L. (1993) Aggression: It’s Causes, Consequences, and Control. McGraw-Hill, New York.
[22] Yang, Z.L. and Sun, L.R. (2010) Laboratory Paradigms on Aggression Studies. Psychological Science, 33, 1436-1438.
[23] Carré, J.M., McCormick, C.M. and Mondloch, C.J. (2009) Facial Structure Is a Reliable Cue of Aggressive Behavior. Psychological Science, 20, 1194-1198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02423.x
[24] Cherek, D.R. (1981) Effects of Smoking Different Doses of Nicotine on Human Aggressive Behaviour. Psychopharmacology, 75, 339-345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00435849
[25] Gerra, G., Zaimovic, A., Raggi, M.A., Moi, G., Branchi, B., Moroni, M. and Brambilla, F. (2007) Experimentally Induced Aggressiveness in Heroin-Dependent Patients Treated with Buprenorphine: Comparison of Patients Receiving Methadone and Healthy Subjects. Psychiatry Research, 149, 201-213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2006.02.013
[26] Golomb, B.A., Cortez-Perez, M., Jaworski, B.A., Mednick, S. and Dimsdale, J. (2007) Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm: Validity of a Brief Schedule of Use. Violence and Victims, 22, 95-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/vv-v22i1a006
[27] Carré, J.M. & McCormick, C.M. (2008) Aggressive Behavior and Change in Salivary Testosterone Concentrations Predict Willingness to Engage in a Competitive Task. Hormones and Behavior, 54, 403-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.04.008
[28] Stirrat, M., Stulp, G. and Pollet, T.V. (2012) Male Facial Width Is Associated with Death by Contact Violence: Narrowfaced Males Are More Likely to Die from Contact Violence. Evolution Human Behavior, 33, 551-556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.02.002
[29] Christiansen, K. and Winkler, E.M. (1992) Hormonal, Anthropometrical, and Behavioral Correlates of Physical Aggression in Kung San Men of Namibia. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 271-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-2337(1992)18:4<271::AID-AB2480180403>3.0.CO;2-6
[30] Carré, J.M., Morrissey, M.D., Mondloch, C.J. and McCormick, C.M. (2010) Estimating Aggression from Emotionally Neutral Faces: Which Facial Cues Are Diagnostic? Perception, 39, 356-377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/p6543
[31] Castle, E., Eisenberger, N.I., Seeman, T.E., Moons, W.G., Boggero, I.A., Grinblatt, M.S. and Taylor, S.E. (2012) Neural and Behavioral Bases of Age Differences in Perceptions of Trust. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 20848-20852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1218518109
[32] Ruffman, T., Sullivan, S. and Edge, N. (2006) Differences in the Way Older and Younger Adults Rate Threat in Faces but Not Situations. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61, 187-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/61.4.P187
[33] Zebrowitz, L.A., Franklin Jr., R.G., Hillman, S. and Boc, H. (2013) Older and Younger Adults’ First Impressions from Faces: Similar in Agreement but Different in Positivity. Psychology & Aging, 28, 202-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030927
[34] Mondloch, C.J., Elms, N., Maurer, D., Rhodes, G., Hayward, W.G., Tanaka, J.W. and Zhou, G.M. (2010) Processing Underlying the Cross-Race Effect: An Investigation of Holistic, Featural, and Relational Processing of Own-Race and Other-Race Faces. Perception, 39, 1065-1085. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/p6608
[35] Rhodes, G., Hayward, W.G. and Winkler, C. (2006) Expert Face Coding: Configural and Component Coding of Own- Race and Other-Race Faces. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 499-505. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03193876
[36] Trebicky, V., Havlícek, J., Roberts, S.C., Little, A.C. and Kleisner, K. (2013) Perceived Aggressiveness Predicts Fighting Performance in Mixed-Martial-Arts Fighters. Psychological Science, 24, 1664-1672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797613477117
[37] Geniole, S.N., Molnar, D.S., Carré, J.M. and McCormick, C.M. (2014) The Facial Width-to Height Ratio Shares Stronger Links with Judgments of Aggression Than with Judgments of Trustworthiness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40, 1526-1541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036732
[38] Gómez-Valdés, J., Hünemeier, T., Quinto-Sánchez, M., Paschetta, C., de Azevedo, S., González, M.F., et al. (2013) Lack of Support for the Association between Facial Shape and Aggression: A Reappraisal Based on a Worldwide Population Genetics Perspective. PLoS ONE, 8, e52317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052317
[39] Sell, A., Cosmides, L., Tooby, J., Sznycer, D., Von Rueden, C. and Gurven, M. (2009) Human Adaptations for the Visual Assessment of Strength and Fighting Ability from the Body and Face. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276, 575-584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.1177
[40] Mazur, A. and Booth, A. (1998) Testosterone and Dominance in Men. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21, 353-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x98001228
[41] Carré, J.M., Murphy, K.R. and Hariri, A.R. (2013) What Lies Beneath the Face of Aggression. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 224-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsr096
[42] Bar, M., Neta, M. and Linz, H. (2006) Very First Impressions. Emotion, 6, 268-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.6.2.269
[43] Carré, J.M., McCormick, C.M. and Hariri, A.R. (2011) The Social Neuroendocrinology of Human Aggression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 935-944. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.02.001
[44] Lefevre, C.E., Lewis, G.J., Perrett, D.I. and Penke, L. (2013) Telling Facial Metrics: Facial Width Is Associated with Testosterone Levels in Men. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34, 273-279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2013.03.005
[45] Siegel, A., Bhatt, S., Bhatt, R. and Zalcman, S.S. (2007) The Neurobiological Bases for Development of Pharmacological Treatments of Aggressive Disorders. Current Neuropharmacology, 5, 135-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157015907780866929
[46] Coccaro, E.F., McCloskey, M.S., Fitzgerald, D.A. and Phan, K.L. (2007) Amygdala and Orbitofrontal Reactivity to Social Threat in Individuals with Impulsive Aggression. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 168-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.08.024
[47] Beaver, J.D., Lawrence, A.D., Passamonti, L. and Calder, A.J. (2008) Appetitive Motivation Predicts the Neural Response to Facial Signals of Aggression. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 2719-2725. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0033-08.2008
[48] Manuck, S.B., Marsland, A.L., Flory, J.D., Adam Gorka, A., Robert E. Ferrell, R.E. and Ahmad R. Hariri, A.R. (2010) Salivary Testosterone and a Trinucleotide (CAG) Length Polymorphism in the Androgen Receptor Predict Amygdala Reactivity in Men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 94-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.04.013

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.