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Vitamin D Efficiency in Pregnancy: An Updated Viewpoint in Indian Scenario

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DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.63026    4,284 Downloads   5,278 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

A decade ago identified as bone-building mineral improving calcium absorption, today new re-search opens potentials of Vitamin D in spectrum of diseases from diabetes, hypertension to cancer including special population like pregnancy & lactation. As calcium demands increase during pregnancy, Vitamin D status becomes crucial for optimal maternal & fetal outcomes. Adverse health outcomes such as preeclampsia, low birth weight, neonatal hypocalcemia, bone fragility & increased incidence of autoimmune diseases have been linked to low Vitamin D levels during pregnancy & infancy. Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy & lactation despite widespread use of prenatal vitamins, because these are inadequate to maintain normal Vitamin D levels. The current IOM (US) as well as ICMR (India) recommendations for Vitamin D supplementation is not sufficient to maintain the optimal levels of serum 25(OH) D above 30 ng/ml required during pregnancy. It may therefore be judicious to include screening of all pregnant women for Vitamin D levels as a part of routine antenatal care and supplementation should be considered if deficiency persists. Till date interventional trials in special population suggest that administration of Vitamin D during pregnancy & lactation is safe & beneficial for optimal maternal & fetal outcomes. When Vitamin D deficiency is identified during pregnancy, most experts agree that up to 2000 IU/day of Vitamin D is safe. This review elaborates Vitamin D deficiency in Indian scenario and the need for Vitamin D supplementation, expounds and exercises the facts for implementation of Vitamin D supplementation to be advised when planning for pregnancy, current recommendations and implications of Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and lactation.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Maladkar, M. , Sankar, S. and Kamat, K. (2015) Vitamin D Efficiency in Pregnancy: An Updated Viewpoint in Indian Scenario. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 6, 204-216. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.63026.

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