Share This Article:

A GIS-Based Drastic Model for Assessing Aquifer Vulnerability in Amman-Zerqa Groundwater Basin, Jordan

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1933KB) PP. 490-504
DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.55059    4,598 Downloads   7,844 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is a major basin in Jordan. The concentration of economic, agricultural and social activities within the basin makes it of prime importance to Jordan. Intensive agricultural practices are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Groundwater contamination is of particular concern as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for irrigation, drinking and industrial activities. A DRASTIC model integrated with GIS tool has been used to evaluate the groundwater vulnerability of AZB. The Drastic index map showed that only 1.2% of the basin’s total area of 3792 km2 lies in the no vulnerable zone and about 69% is classified as having low pollution potential. The results also revealed that about 30% of the catchment area is moderately susceptible to pollution potential and slightly 1% is potentially under high pollution risk. These results suggest that almost one third of the AZB is at moderate risk of pollution potential. These areas are mainly in the north-east and central parts of the basin where the physical factors (gentle slope and high water table) would allow more contaminants to easily move into the shallow groundwater aquifer. Areas with high vulnerability to pollution are largely located in the center of Amman old city.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Al-Rawabdeh, N. Al-Ansari, A. Al-Taani and S. Knutsson, "A GIS-Based Drastic Model for Assessing Aquifer Vulnerability in Amman-Zerqa Groundwater Basin, Jordan," Engineering, Vol. 5 No. 5, 2013, pp. 490-504. doi: 10.4236/eng.2013.55059.

References

[1] DOS—Department of Statistics, “Estimation of population by Governorate,” Department of Statistics, Amman, 2003. www.dos.gov.jo/sdb_pop_e/ehsaat/alsokan/1_2003.htm
[2] OPTIMA, “Optimization for Sustainable Water Resources Management,” 2004. http://www.ess.co.at/OPTIMA/CASE/JO/Zerqa.html
[3] A. Margane, “Management and Protection and Sustainable Use of Groundwater and Soil Resources in the Arab Region, Volume 4: Guideline for Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping and Risk Assessment for Susceptibility of Groundwater Resources to Contamination,” Project No. 1996.2189.7, Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Bonn, 2003.
[4] R. Al-Adamant, I. Foster and S. Baban, “Groundwater Vulnerability and Risk Mapping for the Basaltic Aquifer of the Azraq Basin of Jordan Using GIS, Remote Sensing and DRASTIC,” Applied Geography, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2003, pp. 303-324. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2003.08.007
[5] A. El-Naqa, “Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Using the DRASTIC Model at Russeifa Landfill, Northeast Jordan,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 47, No. 1, 2004, pp. 51-62. doi:10.1007/s00254-004-1126-9
[6] M. Al Kuisi, A. El-Naqa and N. Hammouri, “Vulnerability Mapping of Shallow Groundwater Aquifer Using SINTACS Model in the Jordan Valley Area, Jordan,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 50, No. 5, 2006, pp. 645-650. doi:10.1007/s00254-006-0239-8
[7] H. Werz and H. H?tzl, “Groundwater Risk Intensity Mapping in Semi-Arid Regions Using Optical Remote Sensing Data as an Additional Tool,” Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1031-1049. doi:10.1007/s10040-007-0202-0
[8] N. Hammouri and A. El-Naqa, “GIS based Hydrogeological Vulnerability Mapping of Groundwater Resources in Jerash Area—Jordan,” Geofísica Internacional, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2008, pp. 85-97.
[9] M. Awawdeh and R. Jaradat, “Evaluation of Aquifers Vulnerability to Contamination in the Yarmouk Basin, Jordan, Based on DRASTIC Method,” Jaradat Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2010, pp. 273-282.
[10] Water Authority of Jordan, “WAJInternal Files for Groundwater Basins in Jordan,” 2006. http://www.mwi.gov.jo/sites/en-us
[11] M. Masri, “Report on the geology of the Amman-Zerqa area,” Unpublished Report, Central Water Authority, Amman, 1963.
[12] M. MacDonald and Partners in Cooperation with Hunting Geological Surveys Limited: East Bank Water Resources, “East Bank Water Resources, Vol. 5,” Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Amman, 1965, p. 512.
[13] D. H. Parker, “The Hydrogeology of the Mesozioc-Cainozoic Aquifer of the Western Highlands and Plateau of East Jordan,” Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome, 1970.
[14] VBB—Vatten Byggnads Bryan, FAWZI and Associates, “Water Resources Study for Amman Water Supply, Vol. 1 and 2,” Water and Sewerage Authority of Jordan, Stockholm in association with FAWZI and Associates, Amman, 1977. (Unpublished)
[15] Agrar, Hydrotechnik Gmbh and GTZ, “National Water Resources Master Plan of Jordan, Vol. 7,” Ministry of Planning/Documentation Section, Amman, 1977.
[16] Howard Humphreys and Sons, “Water Use Strategy North Jordan. Summary Report,” National Planning Council, The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Amman, 1978.
[17] J. Al Mahamid, “Integration of Water Resources of the Upper Aquifer in Amman-Zerqa Basin Based on Mathematical Modeling and GIS, Jordan,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Jordan, Amman, 2005.
[18] S. Mikbel and W. Zacher, “The Wadi Shuieb Structure in Jordan,” Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Pal?ontologie, Monatshefte, Vol. 9, 1981, pp. 571-576.
[19] W. Barber, “An Outline for Water Planning in East Jordan,” Natural Resources Authority, Jordan, 1975.
[20] E. Salameh and P. Udluft, “The Hydrodynamic Pattern of the Central Part of Jordan,” Geologisches Jahrbuch Reihe C, Vol. 38, 1985, pp. 39-55.
[21] B. M. Evans and W. L. Mayers, “A GIS-Based Approach to Evaluating Regional Groundwater Pollution Potential with DRASTIC,” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 45, No. 2, 1990, pp. 242-245.
[22] T. G. Fritch, C. L. McKnight Jr., J. C. Yelderman and J. G. Arnold, “An Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment of the Paluxy Aquifer, Central Texas, USA, Using GIS and a Modified DRASTIC Approach,” Environmental Management, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2000, pp. 337-345. doi:10.1007/s002679910026
[23] R. C. Knox, D. A. Sabatini and L. W. Canter, “Subsurface Transport and Fate Processes,” Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, 1993.
[24] G. Piscopo, “Groundwater Vulnerability Map, Explanatory Notes, Castlereagh Catchment,” NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Parramatta, 2001. http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/water/groundwater/reports/pdfs/castlereagh_map_notes.pdf
[25] D. Rundquist, A. Peters, D. Liping, D. Rodekohr, R. Ehrman and G. Murray, “State-Wide Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Nebraska Using the DRASTIC/GIS Model,” GeoCartography International, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1991, pp. 51-58.
[26] S. Secunda, M. Collin and A. J. Melloul, “Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Using a Composite Model Combining DRASTIC with Extensive Land Use in Israel’s Sharon Region,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1998, pp. 39-57. doi:10.1006/jema.1998.0221
[27] L. Aller, T. Bennett, J. H. Lehr, R. J. Petty and G. Hackett, “DRASTIC: A Standardized System for Evaluating Groundwater Pollution Potential Using Hydrogeologic Settings,” US Environmental Protection Agency Report 600/2-87/035, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 1987.
[28] M. Anwar, C. Prem and V. B. Rao, “Evaluation of Groundwater Potential of Musi River Catchment Using DRASTIC Index Model,” In: B. R. Venkateshwar, M. K. Ram, C. S. Sarala and C. Raju, Eds., Proceedings of the International Conference on Hydrology and Watershed Management, B. S. Publishers, Hyderabad, 2003, pp. 399-409.
[29] I. Babiker, M. Mohammed, T. Hiyama and K. Kato, “A GIS-Based DRASTIC Model for Assessing Aquifer Vulnerability in Kakmigahara Heights, Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan,” Science of the Total Environmental, Vol. 345, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 127-140. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.11.005
[30] H. Chandrashekhar, S. Adiga, V. Lakshminarayana, C. J. Jagdeesha and C. Nataraju, “A Case Study Using the Model ‘DRASTIC’ for Assessment of Groundwater Pollution Potential,” Proceedings of the ISRS National Symposium on Remote Sensing Applications for Natural Resources, Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Bagalore, 19-21 June 1999, pp. 414-417.
[31] B. Dixon, “Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping: A GIS and Fuzzy Rule Based Integrated Tool,” Applied Geography, Vol. 25, No 4, 2005, pp. 327-347. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2005.07.002
[32] P. Napolitano and A. Fabbri, “Single-Parameter Sensitivity Analysis for Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Using DRASTIC and SINTACS,” Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Vol. 235, 1996, pp. 559-566.
[33] S. Shahid, “A Study of Groundwater Pollution Vulnerability Using DRASTIC/GIS, west Bengal, India,” Journal of Environmental Hydrology, Vol. 8, No. 11-12, 2000, p. 124.
[34] USDA (United State Department of Agriculture), “Permeability Key,” Agriculture Handbook, Vol. 436, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1994. http://www.mn.nrcs.usda.gov/mo10/mo10guides/permkey
[35] A. D. Davis, A. J. Long and M. Wireman, “KARSTIC: A Sensitivity Method for Carbonate Aquifers in Karst Terrain,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2002, pp. 65-72. doi:10.1007/s00254-002-0531-1

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.