Share This Article:

Positioning with Wide-Area GNSS Networks: Concept and Application

DOI: 10.4236/pos.2012.31001    8,639 Downloads   15,351 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment


The use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for positioning has revolutionized the way location data is be- ing collected. The NAVigation System with Time And Ranging Global Positioning System (GPS), which is a principal component of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS); is a satellite-based radio navigation system that provides positions of points of interest and time information to users. GPS positional accuracy can be improved by using differential corrections obtained through a technique called Differential GPS (DGPS), which is known to provide the most accurate positioning results. Differential correction can be applied in real time at the data collection phase or in the of- fice, at the post-processing phase. DGPS is generally used for positioning purposes through static or kinematics GPS surveys. In static GPS surveys, one receiver is placed at a point whose coordinates are known and the other receiver is placed over a point whose coordinates are desired. In kinematic surveys, one receiver remains at one point (base station) normally with known coordinates, and the other receiver (rover) moves from point to point in the project area. Kinematic surveys in which points positions are computed on-the-fly (OTF) are known as real-time kinematic (RTK). RTK surveys provide real-time locations of points of interest needed in many applications. Positioning with wide-area GNSS networks is basically based on the DGPS and RTK concepts. Observables from a network of a finite number of GPS receivers over an area are processed by a server at a central location (network server) and made available to the users of the network later or in real-time through radio-based, satellite, or wireless communications. This article provides a review of the concept and application of positioning with wide-area GNSS networks.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

T. Ali, "Positioning with Wide-Area GNSS Networks: Concept and Application," Positioning, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.4236/pos.2012.31001.


[1] G. Seeber, “Satellite Geodesy,” Walter de Gruyter, New York, 1993.
[2] A. Leick, “GPS Satellite Surveying,” 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York, 1994.
[3] R. Langley, “The GPS Observables,” GPS World, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1993, pp. 55-69.
[4] P. Bolstad, A. Jenks, A. J. Berkin, K. Horne and W. Rea- ding, “A Comparison of Autonomous, WAAS, Real-Time, and Post-Processed Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Accuracies in Northern Forests,” Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2005, pp. 5-11.
[5] C. Gaod, “Short Distance GPS Models, in GPS for Geod- esy,” 2nd Edition, In: P. Teunissen and A. Kleusberg, Eds, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998.
[6] J. Sickle, “GPS for Land Surveyors,” 3rd Edition, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, New York, 2008.
[7] C. Kee, “Wide Area Differential GPS,” In: B. W. Parkinson and J. J. Spilker Jr., Eds., Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Washington DC, 1996, pp. 81-116.
[8] Federal Aviation Administration, “Current WAAS Verti- cal Navigation Service Snapshot Display,” 2011.
[9] National Geodetic Survey, “Location Map of the CORS Stations,” 2011.
[10] P. Spofford, “GPS CORS and Precise Orbit Data from the National Geodetic Survey,” 1996.
[11] National Geodetic Survey, “Guidelines for Real-Time GNSS Networks,” NOAA’s National Geodetic Survey Publication Library, 2011.
[12] M. Leach and M. Cardoza, “GPS Monitor Stations, Reference Stations, and Networks: Design Issues and Trends in Technology,” International Federation of Surveyors, Melbourne, 1994.
[13] L. Arnold and P. Zandbergen, “Positional Accuracy of the Wide Area Augmentation System in Consumer-Grade GPS Units,” Computers & Geosciences, Vol. 37, No. 7, 2011, pp. 883-892. doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2010.12.011
[14] G. Wübbena, A. Bagge and M. Schmitz, “Network-Based Techniques for RTK Applications,” Proceedings of the Japan Institute of Navigation, GPS Symposium, Japan Institute of Navigation, Kobe, 2001, pp. 53-65.
[15] eGPS Incorporation, “Current WAAS Vertical Navigation Service Snapshot Display,” 2011.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.