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Clinico-Radiological Correlation in Children with Ataxia Telangiectasia in Qatar

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DOI: 10.4236/oji.2015.51004    3,347 Downloads   3,814 Views

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare disease characterized by immunodeficiency and neurological manifestations. Ataxia, resulting from cerebella atrophy, runs a progressive incapacitating course. Clinical monitoring of the disease course is mandatory for early treatment. Aim: To study clinical severity of AT and correlate it with the degree of cerebellar atrophy. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively studied all children (less than 14 years) with AT seen at Hamad General Hospital Clinics between 1998-2013. We collected basic demographic data, parental consan-guinity, family history, AT clinical severity scores, and reviewed CBC with differential counts; alpha-fetoprotein, serum immunoglobulins and lymphocyte subsets. Cranial MRI scans of each subject were reviewed by a neuroradiologist. Cerebellar atrophy was visually and semi-quantitatively scored. Results: We analyzed data on 18 AT children (10 males and 8 females), mean age of 76.9 months. 77.8% had a positive family history of AT and 41.7% parental consanguinity. Lymphopenia was observed in 77.8% and high serum alpha-fetoprotein in 87.5% of children. Clinical severity of ataxia was 17.1 ± 8.4 (mean ± SD); 86.7% of patients were moderate-severe. MRI cerebellar atrophy score was 1.9 ± 1.3 (mean ± SD), and moderate in 51% of patients. AT clinical severity score correlated (coefficient r = 0.566) but not statistically significant p = 0.088) with MRI cerebellar atrophy scores. Conclusions: Moderate to severe ataxia and marked cerebellar atrophy are quite common in AT children. There is a correlation between AT clinical severity and cerebellar atrophy. Larger prospective studies might further determine the significance of our observations and help practicing practitioners monitor the progression of the disease.

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Ehlayel, M. , Elsaid, M. , Shami, R. , Salem, K. and Bener, A. (2015) Clinico-Radiological Correlation in Children with Ataxia Telangiectasia in Qatar. Open Journal of Immunology, 5, 33-38. doi: 10.4236/oji.2015.51004.

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