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Role of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Relational Memory Formation: A Deep Brain Activity Index Study

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DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.85017    311 Downloads   780 Views


The dorsal area of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) constructs the salience network associated with the anterior insular cortex. Conventional brain imaging studies, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have demonstrated that relational memory formation occurs in the ACC. However, how such memory is encoded and retrieved remains unknown due to limited time resolution of conventional fMRI. This study aimed to investigate temporal dynamics of the dorsal ACC (dACC) during word-pair tasks based on a newly developed event-related deep brain activity (ER-DBA) method using occipital electroencephalogram (EEG) signal powers. The method assesses dACC activity at a temporal resolution of approximately 0.3 s beyond the conventional resolution limit. We found that transient deactivation of dACC during the presentation of the second word of each pair was essential for encoding success regardless of whether the words were related or unrelated. We also found that memory accuracy was not affected by the intervention of inter-trials until the recall trial. Taken together, these findings suggest that dACC deactivation for encoding success is accompanied with short-term potentiation essential for durability of memory. We further found that false memory formation associated with the presentation of word pairs was occasionally committed. In such cases, dACC exhibited a similar transient deactivation although false memory commission was independent of related or unrelated conditions. Our findings suggest that encoding and retrieval of associates are paralleled and that simultaneous production of associates seems to be an essential strategy for successful relational memory formation. The study was limited to the assessment of dACC activity and did not account for other regional brain activities or receptor regulation related to short-term potentiation. We detected fast behavior of dACC during relational memory formation using the novel ER-DBA method. Such temporal dynamics will be important for eliciting underlying mechanisms of memory dysfunctions.

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Araki, A. , Imai, E. and Katagiri, Y. (2018) Role of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Relational Memory Formation: A Deep Brain Activity Index Study. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 8, 269-293. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.85017.

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