Share This Article:

Influence of Planting Date on Seed Protein, Oil, Sugars, Minerals, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Soybean under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Environments

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1216KB) PP. 702-715
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.25085    4,938 Downloads   8,815 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Information on the effect of planting date and irrigation on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition in the Early Soybean Production System (ESPS) is deficient, and what is available is inconclusive. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in soybean grown under irrigated (I) and non-irrigated (NI) conditions. A 2-yr field experiment was conducted in Stoneville, MS in 2007 and 2008. Soybean was planted during second week of April (early planting) and second week of May (late planting) each year. Results showed that under irrigated condition, early planting increased seed oil (up to 16% increase) and oleic acid (up to 22.8% increase), but decreased protein (up to 6.6% decrease), linoleic (up to 10.9% decrease) and linolenic acids (up to 27.7% decrease) compared to late planting. Under I conditions, late planting resulted in higher sucrose and raffinose and lower stachyose compared with early planting. Under NI conditions, seed of early planting had higher protein (up to 4% increase) and oleic acid (up to 25% increase) and lower oil (up to10.8% decrease) and linolenic acids (up to 13% decrease) than those of late planting. Under NI, stachyose concentration was higher than sucrose or raffinose, especially in early planting. Under I, early planting resulted in lower leaf and seed B, Fe, and P concentrations compared with those of late planting. Under NI, however, early planting resulted in higher accumulation of leaf B and P, but lower seed B and P compared with those of late planting. This research demonstrated that both irrigation and planting date have a significant influence on seed protein, oil, unsaturated fatty acids, and sugars. Our results suggest that seed of late planting accumulate more B, P, and Fe than those of early planting, and this could be a beneficial gain. Limited translocation of nutrients from leaves to seed under NI is undesirable. Soybean producers may use this information to maintain yield and seed quality, and soybean breeders to select for seed quality traits and mineral translocation efficiency in stress environments.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

N. Bellaloui, K. Reddy, A. Gillen, D. Fisher and A. Mengistu, "Influence of Planting Date on Seed Protein, Oil, Sugars, Minerals, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Soybean under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Environments," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2011, pp. 702-715. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2011.25085.

References

[1] A. Hou, P. Chen, J. Alloatti, D. Li, L. Mozzoni, B. Zhang and A. Shi, “Genetic Variability of Seed Sugar Content in Worldwide Soybean Germplasm Collections,” Crop Sci- ence, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2009, pp. 903-912. doi:10.2135/cropsci2008.05.0256
[2] T. Hymowitz and F. I. Collins, “Variability of Sugar Con- Tent of Seed of Glycine max (L.) Merr. and G. soja Serb. and Zucco,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, 1974, pp. 239-240. doi:10.2134/agronj1974.00021962006600020017x
[3] K. Liu, “Soybeans Chemistry, Technology, and Utilize- tion,” Chapman & Hall, New York, 1997.
[4] L. A. Wilson, “Soy Foods,” In: D. R. Erickson, Ed., Prac- tical Handbook of Soybean Processing and Utilization, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL and United Soybean Board, St. Louis, 1995, pp. 428-459
[5] L. G. Heatherly, “Early Soybean Production System (ESPS),” In: L. G. Heatherly and H. F. Hodges, Eds., Soybean Production in the Midsouth, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1999, pp. 103-118.
[6] A. Mengistu, J. R. Smith, N. Bellaloui, R. L. Paris and J. A. Wrather, “Irrigation and Time of Harvest Effects on Evaluation of Selected Soybean Accessions against Pho- mopsis longicolla,” Crop Science, 2010, Vol. 50, No. 5, pp. 2055-2064. doi:10.2135/cropsci2009.11.0657
[7] J. R. Smith, A. Mengistu, R. L. Nelson and R. L. Paris, “Identification of Soybean Accessions with High Germinability in High-Temperature Environments,” Crop Science, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2008, pp. 2279-2288. doi:10.2135/cropsci2008.01.0026
[8] N. Bellaloui, A. Mengistu and R. L. Paris, “Soybean Seed Composition in Cultivars Differing in Resistance to Char- coal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina),” Journal of Agri- cultural Science, Vol. 146, 2008, pp. 667-675. doi:10.1017/S0021859608007971
[9] N. Bellaloui, J. R. Smith, J. D. Ray and A. M. Gillen, “Effect of Maturity on Seed Composition in the Early Soybean Production System as Measured on Near-Isog- enic Soybean Lines,” Crop Science, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2009, pp. 608-620. doi:10.2135/cropsci2008.04.0192
[10] N. Bellaloui, K. N. Reddy, A. M Gillen and C. A. Abel, “Nitrogen Metabolism and Seed Composition as Influ- Enced by Foliar Boron Application in Soybean,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 336, No. 1-2, 2010, pp.143-155. doi:10.1007/s11104-010-0455-6
[11] P. Pedersen and J. G. Lauer, “Response of Soybean Yield Components to Management System and Planting Date,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 96, No.5, 2004, pp. 1372-1381. doi:10.2134/agronj2004.1372
[12] M. V. Kane, C. C. Steele, L. J. Grabau, C. T. MacKown and D. F. Hildebrand, “Early-Maturing Soybean Crop- ping System: III. Protein and Oil Contents and Oil Com- position,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 89, No. 3, 1997, pp. 464-469. doi:10.2134/agronj1997.00021962008900030016x
[13] T. C. Helms, C. R. Jr. Hurburgh, , R. L. Lussenden and D. A. Whited, “Economic Analysis of Increased Protein and Decreased Yield Due to Delayed Planting of Soybean,” Journal of Production Agriculture, 1990, Vol. 3, pp. 367- 371.
[14] R. W. Howell and F. I. Collins, “Factors Affecting Lino- Lenic and Linoleic Acid Content of Soybean Oil,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 49, No. 11, 1957, pp. 593-597. doi:10.2134/agronj1957.00021962004900110007x
[15] J. R. Wilcox and J. F. Cavins, “Normal and Low Linolenic Acid Soybean Strains: Response to Planting Date,” Crop Science, Vol. 32, No. 5, 1992, pp.1248-1251. doi:10.2135/cropsci1992.0011183X003200050037x
[16] E. Bachlava and A. J. Cardinal, “Correlation between Temperature and Oleic Acid Seed Content in Three Seg- regating Soybean Populations,” Crop Science, Vol. 49, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1328-1335. doi:10.2135/cropsci2008.11.0660
[17] B. F. Carver, J. W. Burton, T. E. Jr. Carter and R. F. Wil- son, “Response to Environmental Variation of Soybean Lines Selected for Altered Unsaturated Fatty Acid Composition,” Crop Science, Vol. 26, No. 6, 1986, pp. 1176-1180. doi:10.2135/cropsci1986.0011183X002600060021x
[18] J. W. Burton, “Recent Developments in Breeding Soy- Beans for Improved Oil Quality,” Fat Science Technology, Vol. 93, 1991, pp. 121-128.
[19] T. M. Cheesbrough, “Changes in the Enzymes for Fatty Acid Synthesis and Desaturation during Acclimation of Developing Soybean Seeds to Altered Growth Tempera- ture,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 90, 1989, pp. 760-764. doi:10.1104/pp.90.2.760
[20] G. O. Tang, W. P. Novitzky, H. C. Griffin, S. C. Huber and R. E. Dewey, “Oleate Desaturase Enzymes of Soybean: Evidence of Regulation through Differential Stability and Phosphorylation,” Plant Journal, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2005, pp. 433-446. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02535.x
[21] J. M. Caba, C. Lluch and F. Ligero,“ Distribution of Nitrate Reductase Activity in Vicia Faba: Effect of Nitrate and Plant Genotype,” Physiolgia Plantarum, Vol. 93, No. 4, 1995, pp. 667-672. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1995.tb05115.x
[22] Y. Kanayama, K. Kimura, Y. Nakamura and T. Ike, “Pu- rification and Characterization of Nitrate Reductase from Nodule Cytosol of Soybean Plants,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 105, No. 3, 1999, pp. 396-401. doi:10.1034/j.1399-3054.1999.105302.x
[23] J. R. Wilcox and R. M. Shibles, “Interrelationships among Seed Quality Attributes in Soybean,” Crop Science, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2001, pp. 11-14. doi:10.2135/cropsci2001.41111x
[24] AOAC, “Method 988.05,” In: K. Helrich, Ed., Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Edition, The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington, 1990a.
[25] AOAC, “Method 920.39,” In: K. Helrich, Ed., Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Edition, The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington, 1990b.
[26] E. Boydak, M. Alpaslan, M. Hayta, S. Gercek and M. Simsek, “Seed Composition of Soybeans Grown in the Harran Region of Turkey as Affected by Row Spacing and Irrigation,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 16, 2002, pp. 4718-4720. doi:10.1021/jf0255331
[27] L. Klepper and R. H. Hageman, “The Occurrence of Ni- trate Reductase in Apple Leaves,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1969, pp. 110-114. doi:10.1104/pp.44.1.110
[28] N. Bellaloui, K. N. Reddy, R. M. Zablotowicz and A. Mengistu, “Simulated Glyphosate Drift Influences Nitrate Assimilation and Nitrogen Fixation in Non-Glyphosate- Resistant Soybean,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, 2006, pp. 3357-3364.
[29] R. W. F. Hardy, D. Holsten, E. K. Jackson and R. C. Burns, “The Acetylene-Ethylene Assay for Nitrogen Fix- ation: Laboratory and Field Evaluation,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 43, No. 8, 1968, pp. 1185-1207. doi:10.1104/pp.43.8.1185
[30] R. M. Zablotowicz, D. D. Focht and G. H. Cannell, “Nodulation and N, Fixation of Field Grown California Cowpeas as Influenced by Irrigated and Droughted Con- ditions” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 73, No. 1, 1981, pp. 9-12. doi:10.2134/agronj1981.00021962007300010003x
[31] G. Lohse, “Microanalytical Azomethine-H Method for Boron Determination in Plant Tissue,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1982, pp. 127-134. doi:10.1080/00103628209367251
[32] M. K. John, H. H. Chuah and J. H. Neufeld, “Application of Improved Azomethine-H Method to the Determination of Boron in Soils and Plants,” Analytical Letters, Vol. 8, No. 8, 1975, pp. 559-568. doi:10.1080/00032717508058240
[33] S. L Bandemer and P. J. Schaible, “Determination of Iron. a Study of the O-Phenanthrolinemethod,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Analytical Edition, Vol. 16, No. 5, 1944, pp. 317-319. doi:10.1021/i560129a013
[34] R. L. Leoppert and W. P. Inskeep, “Colorimetric Determination of Ferrous Iron and Ferric Iron by the 1,10-Phenanthroline Method,” In: J. M. Bigham, Ed., Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 3, Chemical Methods, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 1996, pp. 659-661.
[35] A. J. Cavell, “The Colorimetric Determination of Phosphorus in Plant Materials,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 6, No. 8, 1955, pp. 479-480. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740060814
[36] Analytical Methods Committee Analyst, London, 1959, pp. 214.
[37] SAS, “SAS 9.1 TS LeVel 1M3, Windows Version 5.1. 2600,” SAS Institute, Cary, 2001
[38] N. Bellaloui and A. Mengistu, “Seed Composition Is In- fluenced by Irrigation Regimes and Cultivar Differences in Soybean,” Irrigation Science, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2008, pp. 261-268. doi:10.1007/s00271-007-0091-y
[39] A. Mengistu, L. Castlebury, R. Smith, J. Ray and N. Bel- laloui, “Seasonal Progress of Phomopsis Longicolla Infection on Soybean Plant Parts and Its Relationship to Seed Quality,” Plant Disease, 2009, Vol. 93, No. 10, pp. 1009-1018. doi:10.1094/PDIS-93-10-1009
[40] J. Gao, X. Hao, K. D. Thelen and G. P. Robertson, “Agronomic Management System and Precipitation Effects on Soybean Oil and Fatty Acid Profiles,” Crop Science, Vol. 149, No. 3, 2009, pp. 1049-1057. doi:10.2135/cropsci2008.08.0497
[41] D. M. Maestri, D. O. Labuckas, J. M. Meriles, A. L. La- marques, J. A. Zygadlo and C. A. Guzman, “Seed Com- Position of Soybean Cultivars Evaluated in Different En- vironmental Regions,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 77, No. 4, 1998, pp. 494-498. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199808)77:4<494::AID-JSFA69>3.0.CO;2-B
[42] E. L. Piper and K. J. Boote, “Temperature and Cultivar Effects on Soybean Seed Oil and Protein Concentrations,” Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 76, 1999, pp. 1233-1242.
[43] J. L. Dardanelli, M. Balzarini, M. J. Martinez, M. Cuni- berti, S. Resnik, S. F. Ramunda, R. Herrero and H. Bai- gorri, “Soybean Maturity Groups, Environments, and Their Interaction Define Mega-Environments for Seed Composition in Argentina,” Crop Science, Vol. 46, No. 5, 2006, pp. 1939-1947. doi:10.2135/cropsci2005.12-0480
[44] D. L. Dornbos and R. E. Mullen, “Soybean Seed Protein and Oil Contents and Fatty-Acid Composition Adjustments by Drought and Temperature,” Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 69, 1992, pp. 228-231.
[45] L. R. Gibson and R. E. Mullen, “Soybean Seed Quality Reductions by High Day and Night Temperature,” Crop Science, Vol. 36, 1996, pp. 1615-1619. doi:10.2135/cropsci1996.0011183X003600060034x
[46] J. M. G. Thomas, K. J. Boote, L. H. Jr. Allen, M. Gallo-Meagher and J. M. Davis, “Seed Physiology and Metabolism: Elevated Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Effects on Soybean Seed Composition and Transcript Abundance,” Crop Science, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2003, pp. 1548-1557. doi:10.2135/cropsci2003.1548
[47] R. B. Wolf, J. F. Cavins, R. Kleiman and L. T. Black, “Effect of Temperature on Soybean Seed Constituents: Oil, Protein, Moisture, Fatty Acids, Amino Acid, and Sugars,” Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 59, 1982, pp. 230-232.
[48] C. Ren, K. D. Bilyeu and P. R. Beuselinck, “Composition, Vigor, and Proteome of Mature Soybean Seeds Developed under High Temperature,” Crop Science, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2009, pp.1010-1022. doi:10.2135/cropsci2008.05.0247
[49] C. A. Lowell and T. M. Ku, “Oligosaccharide Metabolism and Accumulation in Developing Soybean Seeds,” Crop Science, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1989, pp. 459-465. doi:10.2135/cropsci1989.0011183X002900020044x
[50] P. J. Kramer, “Effect of Temperature on Water and Ion Transport in Soybean and Broccoli Systems,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 64, No. 1, 1979, pp. 83-87. doi:10.1104/pp.64.1.83
[51] C. Engels and H. Marschner, “Effect of Suboptimal Root Zone Temperatures at Varied Nutrient Supply and Shoot Meristem Temperature on Growth and Nutrient Concentrations in Maize Seedlings (Zea mays L.),” Plant and Soil, Vol. 126, No. 2, 1990, pp. 215-25. doi:10.1007/BF00012825
[52] C. Engels, L. Munkle and H. Marschner, “Effect of Root Zone Temperature and Shoot Demand on Uptake and Xylem Transport of Macronutrients in Maize (Zea mays L.) Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 43, No. 4, 1992, pp. 537-547. doi:10.1093/jxb/43.4.537
[53] O. Uchikawa, K. Tanaka, M. Miyazaki and Y. Matsue, “Effects of Planting Pattern on Growth, Yield and Nitrogen Fixation Activity of Soybean Cropped with Late Planting and Non-Intertillage Cultivation Method in Northern Kyusyu,” Japanese Journal of Crop Science, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2009, pp. 163-169. doi:10.1626/jcs.78.163
[54] R. Serraj, “Effects of Drought on Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Root Nodules,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 41, 2003, pp.1136-41.
[55] J. G. Streeter, “Effects of Drought Stress on Legume Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation: Physiological Mechanisms,” Plant, Cell & Environment, Vol. 26, No. 8, 2003, pp. 1199-1204. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3040.2003.01041.x
[56] T. R. Sinclair, L. C. Purcell, C. A. King, C. H. Sneller, P. Chen and V. Vadez, “Drought Tolerance and Yield Increase of Soybean Resulting from Improved Symbiotic N2 Fixation,” Field Crops Research, Vol. 101, No. 1, 2007, pp. 68-71. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2006.09.010

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.