Share This Article:

Three-Factor structure of self-report schizotypal traits in a French nonclinical sample

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:73KB) PP. 110-114
DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2011.13016    3,761 Downloads   7,753 Views   Citations


Evidence suggests that the structure of psychosis-proneness in the general population may involve three distinct related dimensions. Therefore we conducted a study, using a wider range of measures, to explore the factorial structure of schizotypy assessed by a mixed self-report Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire (mSTQ) in young French healthy individuals. Raine’s Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire [SPQ] and four of the Chapman’s scales [Magical Ideation Scale-MIS; Perceptual Aberration Scale-PAS; Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale-PhA and Revised Social Anhedonia Scale-SA] were combined to form a mSTQ which was administered to 232 French undergraduate students aged from 18 to 25 years old. A Principal Component Analysis [PCA] was carried out on scores for each scale to examine the factorial structure of schizotypal traits in this sample. PCA evidenced a three-factor model of schizotypy in the sample as a whole and even in the lower score sub-sample. The three factors were “positive or cognitive-perceptual”, “negative or social-interpersonal” and “disorganization” latent. Schizotypy, as assessed by these scales, is a multidimensional construct composed by at least three dimensions in this nonclinical sample. This factorial structure is similar to those of schizophrenia symptoms which raise the hypothesis of a continuum from normality to schizophrenia via schizotypal traits

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Brunelin, J. , Dumas, P. , Saoud, M. , d’Amato, T. and Poulet, E. (2011) Three-Factor structure of self-report schizotypal traits in a French nonclinical sample. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 1, 110-114. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2011.13016.


[1] Saoud, M., d’Amato, T., Gutknecht, C., Triboulet, P., Bertaud, J.P., Marie-Cardine, M., Dalery, J. and Rochet, T. (2000) Neuropsychological deficit in siblings discordant for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 893-902.
[2] Brunelin, J., d’Amato, T., Brun, P., Bediou, B., Kallel, L., Senn, M., Poulet, E. and Saoud, M. (2007) Impaired verbal source monitoring in schizophrenia: An intermediate trait vulnerability marker? Schizophrenia Research, 89, 287-292. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.08.028
[3] Claridge, C., McCreery, C., Mason, O., Bentall, R., Boyle, G., Slade, P. and Popplewell, D. (1996) The factor structure of schizotypal traits: A large replication study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 103-115. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8260.1996.tb01166.x
[4] Raine, A., Reynolds, C., Lencz, T., Scerbo, A., Triphon, N. and Kim, D. (1994) Cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized features of schizotypal personality. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 191-201.
[5] Van Os, J. (2003) Is there a continuum of psychotic experiences in the general population? Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 12, 242-252.
[6] Raine, A. (1991) The SPQ: A scale for the assessment of schizotypal personality based on DSM-III-R criteria. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 17, 555-564.
[7] Chapman, L.J., Chapman, J.P., Kwapil, T.R., Eckblad, M.L. and Zinser, M.C. (1994) Putatively psychosis prone individuals ten years on. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 171-183. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.103.2.171
[8] Van Kampen, D. (2006) The Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire (SSQ): Psychometrics, validation and norms. Schizophrenia Research, 84, 305-322. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.02.011
[9] Gruzelier, J.H. (1996) The factorial structure of schizotypy: Part I. Affinities with syndromes of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 22, 611-620.
[10] Lindenmayer, J.P., Grochowski, S. and Hyman, R.B. (1995) Five factor model of schizophrenia: Replication across samples. Schizophrenia Research, 14, 229-234. doi:10.1016/0920-9964(94)00041-6
[11] Mass, R., Schoemig, T., Hitschfeld, K., Wall, E. and Haasen, C. (2000). Psychopathological syndromes of schizophrenia: Evaluation of the dimensional structure of the positive and negative syndrome scale. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 167-177.
[12] El Yazaji, M., Battas, O., Agoub, M., Moussaoui, D., Gutknecht, C., Dalery, J., d’ Amato, T. and Saoud, M. (2002) Validity of the depressive dimension extracted from principal component analysis of the PANSS in drug- free patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 56, 121-127. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(01)00247-X
[13] Vollema, M.G., and Hoijtink H. (2000) The multidimensionality of self-report schizotypy in a psychiatric population: An analysis using multidimensional Rasch models. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 565-575.
[14] Gassab, L., Mechri, A., Dumas, P., Saoud, M., d’ Amato, T., Dalery, J. and Gaha, L. (2006) Dimensional approach of schizotypal personality: A comparative study between French and Tunisian students. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, Revue Psychiatrique, 164, 377-382.
[15] Chen, W.J., Hsiao, C.K. and Lin, C.C.H. (1997) Schizotypy in community samples: The three-factor structure and correlation with sustained attention. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 649-654. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.106.4.649
[16] Fyers, A.J., Endicott, J., Manuzza, S., and Klein, D.F. (1985) Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia-life anxiety version. New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York.
[17] Dumas, P., Saoud, M., Bouafia, S., Gutknecht, C., Ecochard, R., Dalery, J., Rochet, T. and d’ Amato, T. (2002) Cannabis use correlates with schizotypal personality traits in healthy students. Psychiatry Research, 109, 27-35. doi:10.1016/S0165-1781(01)00358-4
[18] Dumas, P., Daléry, J., Saoud, M. and d’ Amato, T. (1999a) Traductions et adaptations fran?aises des questionnaires d’ idéation magique [MIS; Eckblad and Chapman 1983] et d’ aberrations perceptives [PAS; Chapman et coll. 1978]. Encephale, 25, 422-428.
[19] Dumas, P., Bouafia, S., Gutknech, C., Saoud, M., Daléry, J. and d’ Amato, T. (2000a) Validations des versions fran?aises des questionnaires d’ idéation magique [MIS; Eckblad and Chapman 1983] et d’ aberrations perceptives [PAS; Chapman et coll. 1978]. Encephale, 26, 42-46.
[20] Assouly-Besse, F., Dollfus, S. and Petit, M. (1995) Traduction fran?aise des questionnaires d’ anhédonie sociale et physique de Chapman: Validation de la traduction fran?aise à partir de témoins et de patients schizophrènes. Encephale, 21, 273-284.
[21] Loas, G., Dubal, S. and Pierson, A. (1996). Dépistage de l’ anhédonie chez le sujet sain: Détermination des notesseuils à l’ échelle révisée d’ anhédonie physique [PAS] de Chapman et Chapman [1978]. Encephale, 22, 298-302.
[22] Dumas, P., Rosenfeld, F., Saoud, M., Daléry, J. and d’ Amato, T. (1999b) Traduction et adaptation fran?aise du questionnaire de parsonnalité schizotypique de raine [SPQ]. Encephale, 25, 315-322.
[23] Dumas, P., Bouafia, S., Gutknecht, C., Saoud, M., Daléry, J. and d’ Amato, T. (2000b) Validation de la version francaise du questionnaire de personnalité schizotypique de Raine [SPQ]—approche catégorielle et dimensionnelle des traits de personnalité schizotypique en population étudiante saine. Encephale, 26, 23-29.
[24] Bentall, R.P., Claridge, G.S. and Slade, P.D. (1989). The multi-dimensional nature of schizotypal traits: A factor analytic study with normal subjects. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, 363-375. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8260.1989.tb00840.x
[25] Schiffman, J., Nakamura, B., Earleywine, M. and LaBrie, J. (2005). Symptoms of schizotypy precede cannabis use. Psychiatry Research, 134, 37-42. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2005.01.004
[26] Vollema, M.G. and van den Bosch, R.J. (1995). The multidimensionality of schizotypy. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 19-31.
[27] Battaglia, M., Cavallini, M.C., Macciardi, F. and Bellodi, L. (1997) The structure of DSM-III-R schizotypal disorder diagnosed by direct interviews. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23, 1-10.
[28] Rossi, A. and Daneluzzo, E. (2002) Schizotypal dimensions in normals and schizophrenic patients: A comparison with other clinical samples. Schizophrenia Research, 54, 67-75. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(01)00353-X
[29] Fossati, A., Raine, A., Carretta, I., Leonardi, B. and Maffei, C. (2003) The three-factor model of schizotypal personality: Invariance across age and gender. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1007-1019. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00314-8
[30] Suhr, J.A. and Spitznagel, M.B. (2001) Factor versus cluster models of schizotypal traits: I. A comparison of unselected and highly schizotypal samples. Schizophrenia Research, 52, 231-239. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(00)00170-5
[31] Mason, O. and Claridge, G. (2006) The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE): Further description and extended norms. Schizophrenia Research, 82, 203-211. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.12.845
[32] Rosenberger, P.H. and Miller, G.A. (1989) Comparing borderline definition: DSM-III borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 161-169. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.98.2.161
[33] Bergman, A.J., Harvey, P.D., Mitropoulou, V., Aronson, A., Marder, D., Silverman, J., Trestman, R. and Siever, L.J. (1996) The factor structure of schizotypal symptoms in a clinical population. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 22, 501-509.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.