Share This Article:

Augmented Reality for Realistic Simulation Using Improved Snake and Picking Algorithm by Proportional Relational Expression

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1221KB) PP. 687-694
DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.27079    3,623 Downloads   6,560 Views   Citations


In realistic simulation of mobile Augmented Reality, essential point is how to best depict occluded area in such a way that the user can correctly infer the depth relationships between real and virtual objects. However, if the constructed 3D map of real world is not accurate or the density is not sufficient to estimate the object boundary, it is very difficult to determine the occluded area. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method for calculating the occlusion area using the improved snake algorithm and picking algo-rithm by the proportional relational expression. First, we generated the wireframe by the DEM in the experimental region and mapped to CCD real image using visual clues. And then, we calculated the 3D information at the point where occlusion problem for a moving virtual target by the proposed method. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed approach under the environment in which partial occlusions occur.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

J. CHA, G. KIM and H. CHOI, "Augmented Reality for Realistic Simulation Using Improved Snake and Picking Algorithm by Proportional Relational Expression," International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 7, 2009, pp. 687-694. doi: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.27079.


[1] R. Azuma, “A survey of augmented reality,” in ACM SIGGRAPH’95 Course Note #9-Deveoping Advanced Virtual Reality Applications, August 1995.
[2] O. Bimber and R. Raskar, “Spatial augmented reality: A modern approach to augmented reality,” Siggraph, Los Angeles, USA, 2005.
[3] J. Y. Noh and U. Neumann. “Expression cloning,” In SIGGRAPH’01, pp. 277–288, 2001.
[4] E. Chen. “QuickTime VR—An image-based approach to virtual environment navigation,” Proc. of SIGGRAPH, 1995.
[5] A. Ronald and G. Bishop. “Improving static and dynamic registration in an optical see-through HMD,” Proceedings of SIGGRAPH’94, Orlando, Florida, In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series pp. 197–204, July 24-29, 1994.
[6] D. Drastic and P. Milgram, “Perceptional issues in aug-mented reality,” In M. T. Bolas, S. S. Fisher, and J. O. Merritt, editors, SPIE Volume 2653: Stereoscopic Dis-plays and Virtual Reality Systems Ⅲ, pp. 123–134, Janu-ary-February 1996.
[7] J. P. Rolland and H. Fuchs, “Optical versus video see-through head-mounted displays in medical visualiza-tion.” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 287–309, June 2000.
[8] A. Fuhrmann, G. Hesina, F. Faure, and M. Gervautz, “Occlusion in collaborative augmented environments,” Computers and Graphics, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 809–819, 1999.
[9] K. Reinhard, “Automatic reconstruction of buildings from stereoscopic image sequences,” In R. J. Hubbold and R. Juan, editors, Eurographics’93, Eurographics, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK, pp. 339–350, 1993.
[10] S. Growe, P. Schulze, and R. Tnjes, “3D visualization and evaluation of remote sensing data,” Computer Graph-ics International’98 Hanover, Germany, June 22–26, 1998.
[11] E. Chen. “QuickTime VR—An image-based approach to virtual environment navigation,” Proc. of SIGGRAPH, 1995.
[12] L. L. Ji and H. Yan, “Attractable snakes based on the greedy algorithm for contour extraction,” Pattern Recog-nition 35, pp. 791–806, 2002.
[13] C. C. H. Lean, A. K. B. See, and S. A. Shanmugam, “An enhanced method for the snake algorithm,” First Interna-tional Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control (ICICIC’06), Vol. 1, , pp. 240–243, 2006.
[14] C. Xu and J. L. Prince, “Gradient vector flow: A new external force for snakes,” Proc. IEEE Conf. on Comp. Vis. Patt. Recog. (CVPR), Los Alamitos: Comp. Soc. Press, pp. 66–71, 1997.
[15] C. Y. Xu and J. L. Prince, “Snakes, Shapes, and Gradient vector fow,” IEEE Transactions in Image Processing, Vol. 7, No. 3, Mar. 1998.
[16] C. Y. Xu and J. L. Prince, “Generalized gradient vector flow external frces for active contours,” Signal Process-ing, Vol. 71, No. 2, pp. 131–139, Dec. 1998.
[17] S.-T. Wu, M. Abrantes, D. Tost, and H. C. Batagelo, “Picking and snapping for 3D input devices,” In Pro-ceedings of SIBGRAPI’03, pp. 140–147, 2003.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.