Share This Article:

Moderating Effects of Self-Confidence and Sport Self-Efficacyon the Relationship between Competitive Anxietyand Sport Performance

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:118KB) PP. 760-765
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27116    9,553 Downloads   20,320 Views   Citations


The aim of this study was to examine moderating effects of self-confidence and sport self-efficacy on the relationship between competitive anxiety and sport performance in a sample of Iranian athletes. A total of 246 volunteer athletes (149 males, 97 females) were included in this study. All participants were asked to complete Multidimensional Competitive Anxiety Questionnaire and Sport Self-Efficacy Scale. To measure the athletes’ sport performance, their coaches were asked to complete the Sport Achevement Scale. The results revealed that self-confidence and sport self-efficacy moderated the relationship between competitive anxiety and sport performance. Analysis of the data revealed that moderating effects of self-confidence for the association of cognitive and somatic dimensions of competitive anxiety with sport performance were partial. On the other hand, the moderating effects of sport self-efficacy for the association of cognitive and somatic dimensions of competitive anxiety with sport performance were full.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Besharat, M. & Pourbohlool, S. (2011). Moderating Effects of Self-Confidence and Sport Self-Efficacyon the Relationship between Competitive Anxietyand Sport Performance. Psychology, 2, 760-765. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.27116.


[1] Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
[2] Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1-26. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1
[3] Bandura, A. (2006). Guid for constructing self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 307-337). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
[4] Besharat, M. A. (2008). Reliability and Validity of the Sport Self-Effi- cacy Scale. Tehran: University of Tehran. Unpublished.
[5] Besharat, M. A. (2009). Devalopment and validation of the multidimensional competitive anxiety questionnaire. Tehran: University of Tehran. Unpublished.
[6] Besharat, M. A., Abbasi, Q. R., & Shojaoldin, S (2002). An investigation of the relationship between self-esteem and sport achievement among footbalers and wrestlers. Harakat, 12, 31-44.
[7] Burton, D. (1998). Measuring competitive state anxiety. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exrecise psychology measurement (pp. 129-148). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, Inc.
[8] Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1988). A control-process perspective on anxiety. Anxiety Research, 1, 17-22. doi:10.1080/10615808808248217
[9] Compeau, D., & Higgins, C. (1995). Computer self-efficacy: Development of a measure and initial test. MIS Quarterly, 19, 189-211. doi:10.2307/249688
[10] Craft, L. L., Magyar, T. M., Becker, B. J., & Feltz, D. L. (2003). The relationship between the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and sport performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25, 44-65.
[11] Hanin, Y. L. (1986). State-trait anxiety research on sport in the USSR. In C. D. Spielberger, & R. Diaz-Guerrero (Eds.), Cross-cultural anxiety (Vol. 2, pp. 45-64). Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing.
[12] Hanton, S., & Connaughton, D. (2002). Perceived control of anxiety and its relationship with self-confidence performance: A qualitative explanation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 87-97.
[13] Hanton, S., Neil, R., & Mellalieu, S. D., (2008). Recent developments in competitive anxiety direction and competition stress research. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1, 45-57.
[14] Hanton, S., O’Brien, M., & Mellalieu, S. D., (2003). Individual differences, perceived control and competitive trait anxiety. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26, 39-55.
[15] Hardy, L. (1990). A catastrophe model of anxiety and performance. In J. G. Jones, & L. Hardy (Eds.), Stress and performance in sport (pp. 81-106). Chichester: Wiley.
[16] Hardy, L. (1996). A test of catastrophe models of anxiety and sport performance against multidimensional theory models using the method of dynamic differences. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping: An International Journal, 9, 69-86.
[17] Hardy, L., Woodman, T., & Carrington, S. (2004). Is self-confidence a bias factor in higher-order catastrophe models? An exploratory analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 359-368.
[18] Hsu, M., & Chiu, C. (2004). Internet self-efficacy and electronic service acceptance. Decision Support Systems, 38, 369-381. doi:10.1016/j.dss.2003.08.001
[19] Jones, G. (1995). More than just a game: Research developments and issues in competitive anxiety in sport. British Journal of Psychology, 86, 449-478. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1995.tb02565.x
[20] Jones, G., & Hanton, S. (2001). Pre-competitive feeling states and directional anxiety interpretation. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19, 385-395. doi:10.1080/026404101300149348
[21] Jones, G., & Swain, A. B. J. (1992). Intensity and direction dimensions of competitive state anxiety and relationships with competitiveness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 74, 467-472. doi:10.1080/02640419308730023
[22] Jones, G., Swain, A. B. J., & Hardy, L. (1993). Intensity and direction dimensions of competitive state anxiety and relationship with performance. Journal of Sport Sciences, 11, 533-542.
[23] Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. London: Free Association.
[24] Lazarus, R. S. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 229-252.
[25] Llewellyn, D. J., Sanchez, X., Asghar, A., & Jones, G. (2008). Self- efficacy, risk taking and performance in rock climbing. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 75-81. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.03.001
[26] Lombardo, E. R., Tan, G., Jensen, M. P., & Anderson, K. O. (2005). Anger management style and association with self-efficacy and pain in male veterans. The Journal of Pain, 6, 765-770. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2005.07.003
[27] Martens, R., Vealey, R. S., & Burton, D. (1990). Competitive anxiety in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
[28] Mellalieu, S. D., Hanton, S., & Fletcher, D (2006). A competitive anxiety review: Recent directions in sport psychology research. In S. Hanton and S. D. Mellalieu (Eds.), Literature reviews in sport psychology (pp. 1-45). Hauppage, NY: Nova Science.
[29] Nicholas, M. K. (2007). The pain self-efficacy questionnaire: Taking pain into account. European Journal of Pain, 11, 153-163. doi:10.1016/j.ejpain.2005.12.008
[30] Ntoumanis, N., & Jones, G. (1998). Interpretations of competitive trait anxiety symptoms as a function of locus of control beliefs. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 99-114.
[31] Papastergiou, M. (2010). Enhancing physical education and sport science students’ self-efficacy and attitudes regarding information and communication technologies through a computer literacy course. Computers and Education, 54, 298-308. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.08.015
[32] Raglin, J., & Hanin, Y. (2000). Competitive anxiety and athletic performance. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 93-112). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
[33] Robazza, C., & Bortoli, L. (2007). Perceived impact of anger and anxiety on performance in rugby players. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 875-890. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.07.005
[34] Swain, A. B. J., & Jones, G. (1993). Intensity and frequency dimensions of competitive state anxiety. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11, 533-542. doi:10.1080/02640419308730024
[35] Torkzadeh, G., Chang, J., & Demirhan, D. (2006). A contingency model of computer and internet self-efficacy. Information and Management, 43, 541-550. doi:10.1016/
[36] Turk, D. C., & Okifuji, A. (2002). Psychilogical factors in chronic pain: Evolution and Revolution. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 678-690. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.70.3.678
[37] Turner, J. A., Ersek, M., & Kemp, C. (2005). Self-efficacy for managing pain is associated with disability, depression, and pain coping among retirement community residents with chronic pain. Journal of Pain, 6, 471-479. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2005.02.011
[38] Ursin, H., & Eriksen, H. R. (2004). The cognitive activation theory of stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 567-592. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(03)00091-X
[39] Woodman, T., & Hardy, L. (2001). Stress and anxiety. In R. Singer, H. A. Hausenblas, & C. M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology (pp. 290-318). New York: Wiley.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.