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Effective Intervention in Daily Education: A Case Study on Improving Junior Middle School Boys’ Academic Level

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DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.86050    777 Downloads   1,100 Views  
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ABSTRACT

The boy crisis is not unique in China. It has become an international phenomenon. Boy crisis is a kind of social phenomenon from recessive to dominant. Some Chinese scholars agree that boys’ performance at all levels of education is falling behind the girls, which is a common situation of boy crisis. This paper focuses on socialization of boys’ gender role, and summarizes that physiological differences, improper school education causes, absence of father’s role in family education exacerbate and aggravate junior middle school boys’ learning disabilities and academic inferiority. Shanghai YP Experimental School (SYPES) is a private junior middle school found in 1995, which devotes to improving junior middle school boys’ academic level through effective intervention as to create enough space for boys’ growth; promote objective evaluation of boys’ inappropriate behavior; mobilize the power of parents; create more display platform in campus; strengthen the development of school-based curriculum, to stimulate the interest of boys through multiple courses; create a good dynamic classroom environment, and effectively improve the interest and efficiency of boys in classroom learning; form flexible and effective mechanism of process evaluation to keep the boys’ interest in learning; develop boys’ good learning habit in a planned way, and promote the sustainable development of boys; promote boys’ teambuilding to promote the cooperation and competition consciousness in daily education and accumulate local experience.

1. Introduction

1.1. Junior Middle School Boys

Boys in junior middle school are mostly 11 - 15 years old, in the popular sense, having reached the age of puberty or adolescence. Four years’ study in junior middle school is an accelerated period of individual physical development (Sun, 2007; Zhang, 2012; Zhang, 2007) . The body of junior middle school students is in rapid development and gradually reaches maturity. Physical development, mainly in various parts of the body growth, mature, height and weight soared, many indicators are close to the adult level. Cortical structures have been gradually approaching perfection, as nerve fiber myelination develops fast, and excitatory and inhibitory processes coordinate (Zhang, 2012) . The development of psychological level, compared with physiological development speed is relatively stable, as the individual consciousness tendency and psychological characteristics of personality develop fast (Zhang, 2007) . Individual perception has increased rapidly, as perception of time and space get more mature; logical thinking and specific thinking grow fast; adult consciousness gradually forms; teenagers begin to pay attention to self-image (Sun, 2007) . Emotional instability, impulsive, is often accompanied by psychological conflicts. Junior middle school for boys is a critical period for the rapid development of rational thinking, and psychological activity is particularly intense changes (Sun, 2007) . The research on the socialization of gender roles in junior middle school students should be based on their physical and psychological development and the development of self-consciousness (Zhang, 2012 ).

1.2. Boys’ Gender and Role

Initiation of Sex. The term of gender begins with the social, cultural and family expectations of men and women, and the important difference between the sexes is not a prototype or universal, but the result of the interaction of cultural and social reasons. Gender is related to the social role, self-identity and category of culture, and the society assigns different tasks and possibilities to men and women (Fang, 2006) . Everyone was born and living in a constantly expanding on gender differences in the environment. The living environment defines the scope of role identity, individual behavior, self-concept and possibility. Everyone must generate men and women with a strong emotional color in this environment (Zhou, 1995; Zhang, 2012) .

Gender of Human. Gender refers to the difference between male and female, and generally refers to the difference between men and women. Human sex can be divided into 6 types: gene, chromosome, gonad, genital, psychological and social gender. Gene, psychology and society are the three supports of gender. Sex-determining region of Y-chromosome (SRY) is the determining gene, which means with the SRY gene, and then develops into a boy, or otherwise develops into a girl (Yang, 2005) . The study found that in fact, SRY is just one of the many sex genes formed during the present stage, and also found that more than 10 genes are related to the development and gender, which monitor fetal sexual development at different developmental periods (Zhang, 2012) .

Gender of Psychological. Any stage is blocked, will lead to abnormal sexual development of children, and then showed the fuzzy problem of sexuality. Psychological sex is the child’s own gender identity, gene regulation and control and genetic factors, on the other hand, and family education and role identification (Meed, 1977) . Gender identification in one year old began to form, 3 - 5 years old when the basic completion. Therefore, children should be early sexual fuzzy, do the relevant examination and treatment, prevent the formation of cognizance of “reversed” phenomenon in gender, lead to psychological and personality distortion (Fang, 2008) . Gender is more common, refers to the child’s living environment of their gender identity, including friends, people around, family, social and legal institutions, such as identification (Zhang, 2012) .

Gender and behavior. Gender adaptive behavior refers to the behavior that is considered to be more masculine or feminine in our culture. In most cultures, the orientation of male roles is the ability to control and manipulate the environment (Kenneth & Christian, 1999; Fang, 2008) . Men are expected to be independent, decisive, dominant and competitive in social and gender relations (Fang, 2007) . The place of gender construction, namely, state, workplace and school institutions. Connell believes that the masculine spirit is “social construction” or “formed in the discourse”, “the common sense of sex knowledge is not constant, but in the changing practice of rational understanding. Through these practices, the gender in daily life gets formed or completed (Zhang, 2012) .

1.3. Socialization of Boys’ Gender Role

Socialization of boys gender roles in Junior middle school. From the point of view of psychology, sociology and anthropology, gender, gender role and gender role socialization are closely related to the subject. Socialization of junior middle school boys’ gender role refers to the age of 11 to 15 years old male students, receive school education and family education, establish social contact, as well as internalize social norms, social roles and social behavior. There are two forms of implicit and explicit coexistence in this process, and it is a gradual process (Ding & Yue, 2004) . Therefore, the students should pay attention to this stage, to promote the smooth socialization of qualified social people. The role of the socialization process of Junior middle school boys gender problems in the proportion is rising year by year, students in the process of gender role socialization, due to external factors, the masculine is blocked, the emergence phenomenon of male feminization and male extramalization. Male feminization is the main problem, the men show women’s language, tone, ideas and behavior patterns, some boys imitate the girls dress up to show their charm. The phenomenon of male extramalization is extremely rare, which is closely related to the development of social science and technology (Gan, 2007; Zhang, 2012) .

Boys’ socialization of gender role in junior middle school. Junior middle school students are in adolescence, physical and psychological are undergoing tremendous changes. Psychology papers refer to the stage for the heart weaning period, students feeling of adult identity gradually increased, at the same time pay more attention to their appearance and image (Li, 2008) . Boys are particularly prominent, the external physiological changes and psychological sense of adult, the man’s sense of mission urge boys’ impulses and immature behavior, self-conception begins to form. Individual inner sense of adult, boys imagine their future position, but boys are not adults, they have not formed correct attitude, traditional idea and formal behavior of many things. Boys accept information and things, but they cannot take the essence and abandon the dross (Zhang, 2012) . Junior middle school is the stage of differentiation of individual gender role, after trying the frustration and failure, a lot of ideas and behaviors are internalized into their own style of doing things. Therefore, the junior middle school students should arouse the attention of the society, schools and parents to help students grow up healthy (Ji, et al. 2007; Zhang, 2012) .

1.4. Objective of the Research

Shanghai YP Experimental School (SYPES) is a private junior middle school found in 1995. The proportion of boys and girls in school almost has remained at 4:6 for years. This study held by SYPES School, meant to describe the academic inferiority of the boys in SYPES School, search ways to improve the academic performance of the boys in SYPES School.

2. Literature Review

Since the end of the twentieth Century, some Chinese scholars have already published a series of “boy” article, published the book; Study on boy education problems from the family, school, social and other aspects to understand today’s boy problems; pay attention to the gender equality in today’s society, people pay attention to education for girls more (Qiao, 2011) . To a certain extent, ignored the boy problems in education, or lack of awareness; the purpose of this paper is to make the family, school and society to deepen knowledge and understanding of the seriousness of the problem of education of boys, recognize the boy education problem, change to the boy’s attitude, pay attention to the cultivation of the boy’s masculinity, to create a suitable environment for the development of gender and space for the boy (Zhang, 2012) . Researchers believes that crisis exists in both boys’ and girls’ education, also has the education crisis, mainly for the four kinds of crises: studies of psychological crisis, physical and social crisis, and the related research for the boy crisis, published the “save the boys” one book, to a certain extent caused by social and academic circles to the boy education issues of concern and discussion (Sun, Liu, & Zhao, 2010) . Ding Gang, Yue long carries on the investigation to the boys in the basic education that sexism in the theoretical research of gender inequality, should not only focus on the research of suffering injustice of individuals and groups of girls education, but also to pay attention to the education of boys, because they are in some suffer from gender inequality treatment, therefore only gender discrimination against women in the field of education research is not fair, is not complete (Ding & Yue, 2004) . Whether boy or girl education are equally important, just because of the advantages and disadvantages of different gender different required education methods should also be different, that is to have sex education area (Zhao & Liu, 2009) .

In the domestic literature review finishing found: most researchers think the boy because of academic problems and disadvantages to their aptitude, because of lack of evaluation, the boy masculine gas need to save, has been to a boy crisis; most researchers believe that the lack of father’s education is one of the reasons for the tendency of the boy female problem the boy’s father called for them to actively participate in education; some researchers believe that the boy’s problem is mainly caused by education, believes that the current education is more suitable for girls, is not conducive to the development of the boy (Sun, 2007) . However, since ancient times China education mode is designed for boys, is the most suitable for the boy’s characteristics, only modern girl in the same conditions of receiving education, work hard, so the academic performance is excellent (Qiao, 2011) .

The boy crisis is not unique in China, it has become an international phenomenon. The test results show that British girls are more outstanding than boys in almost all subjects (Li & Sun, 2009) . In Australian there is not only academic gap between the boys and girls at school, and majority breaking discipline and expelled from school are boys (Zhao & Li, 2010) . In the United States statistics show that boys spend less years than girls in studying at campus. Faced with these problems, research abroad generally contributes cause of boy crisis not only to internal education, but also affected by political, economic, cultural and social elements, which also affect each other. Researchers put forward many constructive suggestions, such as delay the age of boys enter school, individualized measures for boys, from the aspect of quantity of boy crisis is reduced, the practice proves that these solutions are important for the state to moderate boy crisis problem (Sun, 2012) . Boy crisis is a kind of social phenomenon from recessive to dominant. In 1998 Harvard University psychologist William Pollack defined in his book “real boy”, boy crisis is analyzed as “cowardly”, “lack of confidence”, the phenomenon that boy’s achievements far falling behind girls. Some Chinese scholars agree that boys’ performance at all levels of education is falling behind the girls, which is a common condition of boy crisis (Li, 2010) .

The boy crisis is accompanied by 3 to 18 year old boy, compared with the same age girl, whose view and value holds more deviation in view of life. Boys’ and performance in academic, physical, psychological and behavior show a decline. There is a big gap between boy and girl of the same age in positive image, academic achievement, psychological maturity and appropriate behavior, which now is the common social phenomena and problems (Wang, 2012; Sun, 2012; Zhang, 2012) .

3. Research Design

To improve the literature research and action research methods mainly use the research practice of junior middle school boys academic level, (target, learning, planning, diagnosis, diagnosis, and to summarize the implementation of feedback, adjustment, evaluation, and action).

4. Boys’ Academic Inferiority Performance in Junior Middle School

Shanghai YP Experimental School (SYPES) is a private junior middle school found in 1995. The proportion of boys and girls in school almost remained at 4:6 from Sep 2011 to June 2014. Since Sep 2012 at the beginning of every semester, Shanghai YP Experimental School encouraged new students to finish survey on learning ability (Table 1). There were about 500 students who have taken part in this survey (Huang & Tang, 2016) .

Generally speaking, learning ability refers to the ability of people to learn, work and develop in formal or informal learning environment. The learning ability of students in middle school is that the students master the scientific learning method through the teachers’ guidance. Therefore, only the students obtain self-learning capacity, then they can achieve learning in order to continuously improve learning efficiency. In SYPES’s survey learning ability is related to learning purpose, learning attitude, learning method and learning efficiency (Figure 1).

Learning Objective: In the survey of learning purpose, researchers found out that gender difference is not obvious among students, almost all of the students held the view that learning can enrich and promote themselves, nearly half of the students said that learning for better life in the future, while nearly half of students

Table 1. Items in SYPES’s survey of boys’ learning ability.

Figure 1. Components of learning ability in SYPES’s survey.

chose learning in order to repay their parents, compared with only about 1/3 students referred to serve motherland.

Learning attitude: In the survey when boys are interested in content, their study enthusiasm was high, and they learned hard. Whereas the study material was boring, their mood was low, interest in science was significantly higher than that of liberal arts; easier to understand the knowledge, hated to remember and recite contents. A considerable part of the boys could not long time focus in class (Sun, 2012; Huang & Tang, 2016) .

Learning methods: Boys are more flexible in thinking, poor in writing skills; pay close attention to results, despise expression. More than half of boys did not desire to pursuit of searching more scientific methods when they register in (Gao, 2010) .

Learning efficiency: the proportion of male students in the situation such as procrastination or omission was significantly higher than that of female students. Boys are obviously inefficient in memorizing and recitation.

Besides SYPES’s survey of boys’ learning ability, teachers of preliminary grade recorded preliminary grade students’ score in Sep. 2011. There were 139 students, 4 classes in preliminary grade in Sep. 2011, including 63 boys and 76 girls. From the comparison of 5 major examinations from Sep. 2011 to June 2012 (Tables 2-6), boys achieved higher average scores in math, but got lower average scores in Chinese and English. This was embarrassed but common situation not only in SYPES, but also in many other junior middle schools (Huang & Tang, 2016) .

5. Analysis on Phenomenon of Junior Middle School Boys’ Inferiority of Learning Ability

In the new century, with the development of education, educational equity has

Table 2. Preliminary grade students’ score in Oct. 201.

Table 3. Preliminary grade students’ score in Nov. 2011.

Table 4. Preliminary grade students’ score in Dec. 2011.

Table 5. Preliminary grade students’ score in Mar. 2012.

Table 6. Preliminary grade students’ score in May 2012.

become the dominant value orientation in the field of basic education in China, education fairness is reflected in the urban and rural areas, gender, class and other aspects. Gender equity in education is always dimension of education fairness (Gao, 2010) . At present, junior middle school boys’ academic inferiority phenomenon has increasingly become a global problem in the field of basic education. Promoting fair education, follow by attaching importance to gender factor in academic achievement, which worth scholars’ concern and in-depth research (Liu, 2009; Zhao, Liu, & Liu, 2009 ).

There are many reasons for the boys’ academic inferiority, which include physiological and psychological differences between boys and girls, including the influence of school education and family education. In addition, the specific culture, social change, the bias of educational research, and so on, can also be the reasons for the above phenomena of boys’ academic inferiority. In order to solve the problem of academic inferiority, we need joint efforts of family, school, educational administration and educational researchers. For schools and teachers, to establish gender education concept, reform the assessment of the students, balance the sex ratio of teachers in primary and secondary school, as well as the proper use of single sex classrooms when possible (Liu, 2009) . For families, it is necessary to update the notion of gender, pay special attention to boys’ education. Encourage fathers to make efforts and assume responsibility for their children’s education (Zhuang, 2011) . The administrative departments of education and education researchers, to fully understand the urgency and significance of boys’ education, and provide the necessary intellectual support for boys’ education (Zhuang, 2011; Li, 2012) .

What happened to our boys? What cause boys’ academic inferiority? This part analyzes some objective reasons for the differences between boys and girls from the perspective of gender, and puts forward some countermeasures to promote the full development of boys’ comprehensive qualities (Ding & Yue, 2004; Zhao & Liu, 2009; Gao, 2010) .

5.1. The Physiological Causes of Junior Middle School Boys’ Learning Disabilities and Academic Inferiority

It is proved that boys and girls are not the same in physical development during junior middle school period. Gender research is emerging, on how gender factors affects boys and girls, including the United States, Britain, Canada, Germany and other developed countries show that boys and girls are different in many points of the brain (Ding & Yue, 2004; Zhao & Liu, 2009; Gao, 2010) .

More dopamine content in the boys’ blood. Dopamine increases the probability of impulsive risk-taking. The cerebellum is the control of behavior and physical action. More blood flowing through the cerebellum, more active the cerebellum is, so the boy prefers to move. These factors are responsible for the boy’s ability to learn in the process of sitting still and sitting in a class. Boys are more likely to learn from body movements (Li, 2013) .

Girls’ temporal lobe has a more powerful neural connection. It promotes more complex storage of sensory memory, as well as better hearing, so girls are particularly sensitive to the tone of the voice. The boy is rarely heard echoing sound near the ear, especially when the sound appears in the form of the language. Therefore, when boys study through lectures in classroom, their achievement and performance are inferior to girls. Boys need more tactile experience to stimulate the enthusiasm of the brain, prefer learning through doing (Mead, 1977; Li & Sun, 2009) .

Boys and girls in the hippocampus (a memory area in the brain) of the brain is also in different ways of working. Boys need more time to remember what teachers say and writing in class. This makes boy feel headache to recite in liberal arts class, spent time with little success, so boys feel tired and easily give up. Instead, boys are more interested in mathematics and science (Yang, 2005; Zhang, 2012; Li, 2013) .

Boy’s frontal lobe is less active than girls, and develops later than girls. To this end, the boy is easy to make impulsive decisions. This impulse will drive boys performing better in the outdoor independent learning. While let the boy fixed in the seat of learning in a small classroom, his learning effect greatly reduced (Li, 2013) .

Girl’s brain in the main language center develops earlier and more advanced than boys. The girls have more estrogen and oxytocin (the use of these chemicals directly influence the language), the boy has more testosterone (a hormone associated with aggressive behavior) and vasopressin (related with territorial and hierarchy). So the boys’ brain is not sensitive of language, so they feel uncomfortable of sitting quietly and learning from conversation, and prefer learning through doing (Yang, 2005; Li, 2013) .

Total amount of blood flow in boy’s brain is less than girl. The total amount of blood flow in the boy’s brain is less than that of the girl, which is not conducive to multiple tasks at the same time. So boys do well when they focus on a single task, continue deep learning for a long time. If they change tasks very often, they do not perform well. The main reaction of the brain to complete multiple tasks is the frustration, so boys tend to have more discipline problems in the classroom. Today’s education is just the lack of deep learning time and depth of learning methods (Yang, 2005; Li, 2013) . The results of these studies show that the boy is not out of the question. The problem is that girls and boys accepting the same education, and receiving same evaluation in school, which will easy neglect the needs of boys’ personality development (Sun, 2012; Huang & Tang, 2016) .

5.2. Improper School Education Exacerbate Junior Middle School Students’ Academic Inferiority

First, in the stage of basic education, female teachers account for a larger proportion, especially in primary school, the way of women’s teaching mode occupy an absolute advantage, which is obviously unfavorable for boys.

Second, the traditional style of classroom teaching mode, examination orientation, mechanical repetition is likely to lead to boys’ resentment. Today’s school education lack of deep learning methods for boys as well as time for deep learning, lack the foundation for cultivating of creative ability; examination orientation education mercilessly deprived of boys’ exercise time (Zhao & Liu, 2009; Sereno & O’Donnell, 2009) .

Last but not least, the evaluation of students. Adults tend to see physiological differences between boys and girls, but easily neglect differences between psychological and personality. Examination oriented education under the baton of college entrance examination, boys and girls take same assessment, and boys are affected more deeply. British scholars’ emphasizes inappropriate assessment in boys’ education problem. As British scholar Annette MacDonald pointed out that most of teachers in schools are female, the school will tend to take teaching methods and evaluation methods preferred by women (Li, 2008; Li & Sun, 2009; Huang & Tang, 2016) .

5.3. Absence of Father’s Role in Family Education Aggravate Junior Middle School Boys’ Academic Inferiority

The influence of family education. The role of parents in family education is equally important. As father is usually busy with work, so they reduce investing time and energy in children’s education, which have significant impact on the overall development of child, include intelligence and personality, especially the formation of personal quality such as strong mind and decisive independence. Especially for boys, the loss of the role of the father, the lack of male role model, will affect the overall performance of boys in school. Whereas, influenced by the traditional ideology, if a family concern the boy too much, even spoiled, our boy will easily get proud and wayward, poorly bear frustration, and lack of the spirit of hard study (Aneshensel, Frerichs, & Clark, 1981; Kenneth & Christian, 1999; Li, 2010) .

6. SYPES School’s Countermeasures for Improving Junior Middle School Boys’ Academic Inferiority

SYPES School has spent years searching and attempting in raising Junior middle school boys’ academic level, give boys and girls the same opportunities to compete, help boys take advantages of themselves in following aspects (Huang & Tang, 2016) .

6.1. Create Enough Space for Boys’ Growth

The growth of a boy needs a greater learning space and spiritual space, as a teacher, we must first understand this point. The acceptance of boys’ gender role is a gradual acquisition of the family, some are genetic, so we cannot immediately change or correct, first we have to recognize the difference. Teachers should not legalistic blindly, in accordance with the restrictions and fetters, ask boys to be obedient. School education should admit individual difference and gender differences, allow boys to learn slowly, step by step, do not stop. Tolerant boys and allow them to make mistakes, educators should have objective view of boys’ normal performance at their age (Li, 2008; Li & Sun, 2009; Zhao & Li, 2010) .

6.2. Objective Evaluation of Boys’ Inappropriate Behavior

Educators should gently accept the boys’ mistakes and keep in good manner. Junior middle school boys are more likely to do little tricks, interrupt in lectures, and do not finish schoolwork in time. Some junior middle school boys are more likely to cultivate crude behavior and procrastinating habit. According to this situation teachers should apply management, restriction, and encouragement. Help boys to master self-approval and self-evaluation skills, establish the concept of right and wrong in their personal growth process. An interesting case in SYPES School to share, two different ways to criticize the boys have different educational effects (Kenneth & Christian, 1999; Li, 2012) .

Once a boy felt curiosity and funny to write nickname of his classmates in the paper. A teacher found it and severely criticized this boy in front of the class. The boy felt shamed and humiliated, and finally gave up his performance in campus. The similar thing happen to B teacher, B teacher did not simply criticism, but said with a slight laugh: “nicknames you written have many typos, you should learn Chinese harder”. This boy was so ashamed that he vowed to study hard. He knew that his teacher had given him a step. Different methods of criticism will make different education effects. So teachers should make full use of caution in their criticism, to actively express criticism’s positive attitude. Researchers ask educators to praise more to promote the development of children’s psychology, to confirm their own judgment, cultivate students’ personal ability to pursue achievement. So, teachers’ praise provides the greatest opportunity to encourage boys, especially when boys suffered frustration and difficulties (Li, 2008; Li, & Sun, 2009; Huang & Tang, 2016) .

6.3. Mobilize the Power of Parents

The acquisition of boys comes from family education, so the influence of parents is very important. Therefore, educators should learn from psychology and pedagogy, and help parents to create larger space for boys’ growth, as well as promote parents to establish a correct concept of educating boys (Li, & Sun, 2009; Cao, 2011) .

Parents have great expectations for their children’s future, so they demand boys to attend extracurricular class and learn after school, which easily make boys tired out and experience depressed childhood.

Parents are too permissive to their boys, and arrange everything for their boys, so boys do not have opportunity to act independently. Once these boys have the opportunity to act dependently, they have few experiences to deal with the problem and easily get into trouble.

Parents spoil and indulge their boys, do not have certain constraints of their boys. These boys usually do not have good habits and personal manners, finally cause a lot of trouble.

The role of parents cannot be ignored, the family environment should be the rear command post, parents’ word and action direct and indirect transfer to their child. Researchers invite parents to stand by educators, deal with the child problems together. Step by step, eliminate those negative accusations, the child’s potential will be slowly activated.

6.4. Create More Display Platform in Campus

Since the boys like to show themselves in larger space, SYPES School creates conditions to provide opportunities for them to show, and let boys participate in school management, school activities. For example SYPES School encourages boys to take part in volunteer service like moving heavy things and organize a friendly basketball game. In this way, boys are beneficial from volunteer service, achieve establishment of self-confidence, and increase the sense of responsibility. SYPES School sets up science and technology research curriculum, and enhances the boys’ creativity and a variety of skills. Create rigorous and relaxed atmosphere for school boys, take challenges, and better promote the development of boys. In interpersonal relationships, many surveys have found that boys are more likely to form a team, more concerned about the task. According to the students thinking quality, educators should fully tap the students thinking quality and creative potential. At the same time, the boys’ lively, quick thinking of quick response, if the learning content cannot arouse the interest of boys, boys will be vulnerable to outside interference. Therefore, according to the teaching content, the group cooperation activities should be carried out in accordance with the teaching content, as cooperative learning is beneficial to reflect the subjectivity of boys and help boys to develop their personality. In cooperative study, students do experiments, write down records, summary, report and statement, so that everyone have opportunity to express themselves in the study, each member’s behavior will affect the entire set of learning outcomes. Through cooperative study, boys learn to listen to the opinions of others, positive to participate, learn to think independently, finally stimulate their ambition and pursue their own perfect initiative, and activate in their intrinsic motivation (Yang, 2005; Huang & Tang, 2016) .

6.5. Strengthen the Development of School-Based Curriculum

In recent years, SYPES School sets up and arranges more than 20 independent development courses on Friday afternoon, strengthen the development of school- based curriculum, to stimulate the interest of boys through multiple courses. Boys are encouraged to devote to independent inquiry activities. Each semester boys can choose a particular course, there are many courses specifically designed for the boys to choose, such as: board role-playing games, chess, carving, basketball, rope skipping, Sudoku, multimedia technology, carpentry, astronomy, and history etc. During the course, teachers also organize students to go out to visit museum, university laboratories and all kinds of exhibition halls, broaden the horizons of students (Li & Sun, 2009; Cao, 2011) .

At the end of each semester, SYPES School also organizes special exhibition activities, build a platform for boys to fully demonstrate their talent and knowledge in the development of activities to learn, and achieved good results. In expanding curriculums, boys tend to be better, more positive and more confident than in other basic courses, and the overall performance is not less inferior to that of the girls (Huang & Tang, 2016) .

At the same time, some short-term expanding curriculum and activities to enhance the students learning interest, meet boys emulative psychology also has a very good effect. Such as the establishment of learning club, help boys to maintain learning self-confidence, cultivate the boys’ creative thinking and perseverance, to overcome the difficulties of learning quality; organize small fun competitions: such as 24 point game of mathematics, Sudoku match, and learning group’s cooperation report (Huang & Tang, 2016) .

6.6. Form Flexible and Effective Mechanism of Process Evaluation to Keep the Boys’ Interest in Learning

In order to realize the motivation and guidance function evaluation of the new curriculum reform, teaching evaluation should be emphasized to promote the development of students as the goal, emphasized the development of comprehensive quality of students, especially the students’ ability to analyze and solve problems. Evaluation should not only focus on students’ academic performance, but also to discover and develop the potential of students, to understand the needs of students’ development, to help students know themselves, to establish self-confidence. In most cases, boys are easily stimulated by teachers’ praise, their own expectations is higher of the praise and will certainly make boys to confirm their judgment. Teachers’ sincere praise often make boys be surprised of their ability, and will certainly have more confidence of his next endeavor. Through praise and confirmation boys get promoted step by step, the boys’ potential gradually gets excavated. Pay attention to the evaluation of boy personality development and growth, which can make the boys get more actively participate in various activities, inquiry activities. The formation of evaluation process mechanism, which is more reasonable and incentive to work, boys get successful experience from process evaluation. While in traditional evaluation, examination oriented. To optimize the process evaluation mechanism, students’ learning process should be included in the evaluation (Cao, 2011) .

Through this weekly evaluation form, boys know their personal situation of learning and study, guide boys to reflect on their own performance and inner experience, encourage boys to compare themselves with other students, in order to develop their accomplishment, and inspire their own progress (Huang & Tang, 2016) .

Evaluation on students’ learning of subjects in the new curriculum standard focus on the students’ learning results, ask educators to pay more attention to students’ learning process; not only pay attention to the basic knowledge and basic skills, but also pay more attention to students’ performance in ability, emotion and attitude and other aspects of development. To this end, the development of a comprehensive subject evaluation table, the purpose is to help students understand their learning situation, to stimulate students’ enthusiasm for learning, and promote the sustainable development of students. By improving the evaluation methods of content and form, change the past practice that rely on a piece of examination paper. The evaluation not only focuses on the academic performance of students, but also pays attention to the discovery and development of boys, many aspects of the learning potential, improving the comprehensive quality of students, to help the boys know themselves, build self-confidence (Huang & Tang, 2016) .

6.7. Develop Boys’ Good Learning Habit in a Planned Way

The key of education is guide. British educator Rock said: “with the increase of age, adolescent’s autonomy and selectivity becomes more and more strong, try to cope with many things through their own actions, as he cannot be taken care forever. Only solid will, principle consciousness and good habits are the best and most reliable in future”. In the process of education, educators should guide students to learn to behave, learn to learn, learn to cooperate, and learn to innovate. For junior middle school students, especially boys, should guide them to develop good learning habits in a series of educational activities, such as habit of writing. Most of the boys’ writing makes teachers feel headache, easily lose points and get deduction. So cultivate boys to form specification writing habits including taking notes, problem solving steps in clear specification, as using ruler, pencil to draw and mark, keep examination sheet in neatness (Huang & Tang, 2016) .

7. Conclusion

The boy crisis is not unique in China, and in SYPES’s survey boys’ performance at all levels of education is falling behind the girls since Sep. 2011, which is a common situation of boy crisis. Besides socialization of boys’ gender role and physiological differences, SYPES has tried to improve daily school education, and adjust the phenomenon of fathers’ absence in family education, which are contributed to exacerbating and aggravating junior middle school boys’ learning disabilities and academic inferiority. SYPES devotes to improving junior middle school boys’ academic level through effective intervention as to create enough space for boys’ growth; promote objective evaluation of boys’ inappropriate behavior; mobilize the power of parents; create more display platform in campus; strengthen the development of school-based curriculum, to stimulate the interest of boys through multiple courses; create a good dynamic classroom environment, and effectively improve the interest and efficiency of boys in classroom learning; form flexible and effective mechanism of process evaluation to keep the boys’ interest in learning; develop boys’ good learning habit in a planned way, and promote the sustainable development of boys; promote boys’ teambuilding to promote the cooperation and competition consciousness in daily education and accumulate local experience.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Zhao, X. (2017) Effective Intervention in Daily Education: A Case Study on Improving Junior Middle School Boys’ Academic Level. Psychology, 8, 781-797. doi: 10.4236/psych.2017.86050.

References

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