Share This Article:

The Relationship of Meta-Emotion Dimensions and Positive and Negative Symptoms in the Patients of Chronic Schizophrenia

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:288KB) PP. 62-67
DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.72007    1,011 Downloads   1,462 Views  


The aim of the present research was to determine the relationship of meta-emotion dimensions and positive and negative symptoms in the patients with chronic schizophrenia. This research is a correlation study. The statistical sample of the current research includes 100 patients with chronic schizophrenia. To collect the data, Meta-Emotion Questionnaire, Positive, and Negative Symptoms Schizophrenia Scale were used. The results of Pearson correlation coefficient showed meta-emotion with positive and negative symptoms. These results suggest that the meta-emotion of chronic schizophrenia patients may well be of important prognostic value in the intensity of symptom logy, prevention and planning of cognitive enhancement therapy.

1. Introduction

In schizophrenia, a wide range of cognitive functions, especially memory, attention, motor skills, executive functions and intelligence are damaged [1] . Schizophrenia effectively disrupts the expression and recognition of experience [2] [3] and potentially reduces physical performance and interpersonal relationships [4] [5] . Given the severity and persistence of the disorder, patients with damage in personal, family and social encounter [6] and the lack of adequate care, with social isolation [7] and experience have a lower level of life quality [8] [9] .

One of the important variables in patients with schizophrenia is excitement. Emotions represent internal data affecting motivation, behavior and cognitive processes (attention and memory biases, judgments and decisions). Excitement comes as a subset of secondary emotions (i.e., anxiety, anger) and emotions like anxiety, anger and compassion. Meta emotion is beyond meta-cognition [10] [11] , which may reflect a vicious cycle [12] . Patients with schizophrenia by a defect in understanding emotions are characterized. The consequences of such defects are poor social adjustment and low tolerance for emotional stress [13] [14] . However, research evidence is contrary to the conclusion of patients with schizophrenia, negative emotions and low positive emotions [15] . As learned about violence and its causes, excitement in schizophrenia research has been done which showed conflicting results in this field [16] [17] [18] . Another research found that schizophrenia is effective in violence. However, among patients with a history of violent behavior early, psychotic symptoms have little influence [19] . Further, a research study found that schizophrenia predicted that the anger is accompanied by harassment and that drug abuse increases the risk [20] . Another research showed that the murder rate in patients with schizophrenia is much higher than after treatment [21] . Further studies, [22] investigated the relationship between emotions and violent behavior with positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

Another study on 41 healthy subjects and 39 schizophrenic patients showed that schizophrenia will have difficulty in emotional processing and emotional problems associated with schizophrenia [23] [24] .

There are different results and research gaps in this area, and the results in the field of pathology are the study of the requirements in schizophrenic patients. The aim of this study was investigating the relationship between meta-excite- ment and positive and negative symptoms of chronic schizophrenia.

2. Material and Methods

This research is descriptive and correlation. Meta-excitement, which comes as predictor variables, and criterion variables are positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Inclusion criteria consisted of the criteria for schizophrenia based on Structured Clinical Interview and psychiatric diagnosis, having at least secondary education and the age range of 50 - 30 years. Individuals with mental retardation or brain damage from the study were excluded.

The study population included all patients with chronic schizophrenia referred to clinical centers in Ardabil in the first 6 months of 2011. The sample consisted of 100 patients with chronic schizophrenia in Ardabil, for sampling from patients with chronic disease in the first half of 2011 selected. Given that the correlation research should sample at least 30 persons, 100 persons were selected due to increased external validity.

Meta-excitement questionnaire: meta-excitement questionnaire is a 28-item and each is subjected to the option item 6 (from completely wrong to completely correct) answer [25] . The Scale of cross-thrilling includes six components: 1) Meta anger; 2) Compassionate cares; 3) The interest spread; 4) Meta humiliation/shame; 5) Difficult to control; 6) Meta Inhibition.

Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the questionnaire in the range of 0.70 to 0.80 is reported. The correlation coefficient of the scale with Personality Inventory NEO, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and meaningful meta cognition questionnaire are obtained (P < 0.01). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the questionnaire in this study is 0.81.

Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia: positive and negative symptoms scale has 50 questions [26] . Test-retest reliability coefficient of the scale (after one month) obtained 0.77.

The subjects to choose from patients with chronic schizophrenia clinical centers in Ardabil were used. The first psychiatrist diagnosing with chronic schizophrenia clinical trials was identified and interviewed. After diagnosis and satisfy them to participate in the study, patients were selected on a voluntary basis.

3. Results

As seen in Table 1, it shows patients with chronic schizophrenia, mean (and ± SD) scores of meta-excitement 88.85 (or 14.06), positive symptoms 42 (and 20.88) and negative symptoms 39.083 (21.92). In Table 2, the data analysis showed that Meta anger (r = 0.24), compassionate care (r = −0.31), Meta interest (r = −0.26), Meta shame/humiliation (r = 0.39), difficult control (r = 0.40), and Meta suppression (r = 0.33) have a significant correlation with positive symptoms (P < 0.01). The results also showed that Meta anger (r = 0.27), compassionate care (r = −0.40), Meta interest (r = −0.36), Meta shame/humiliation (r =

Table 1. Mean and standard deviation in patients with schizophrenia in the studied variables.

Table 2. Meta-excitement correlation coefficient or positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

0.34), control difficult (r = 0.33) and Meta-suppression (r = 0.30) have a significant relationship with negative symptoms (P < 0.01).

4. Discussion

This study aimed to determine the relationship between meta-excitement and positive and negative symptoms of chronic schizophrenia. To explain these findings, it can be said that more harm will be suffered in the excitement of schizophrenic patients.

One of the important psychological thrillers with components in the etiology of schizophrenia has a powerful effect on the emotional argument and on the ways that are still unknown to the consolidation help. In fact, the thrill of a complex system developed during human evolutionary history of the organism responding to environmental stimuli and challenge is equipped. Emotions can affect all aspects of our lives, and shape our relationships and our activities to motivate. So it is important to learn to identify them and how people tell them to hide [27] [28] .

These patients have higher rates of lack of pleasure in comparison with ordinary people and experience fewer positive emotions. We can conclude that the patient’s loss of contact with friends and family and lack of appropriate emotional interaction enhance emotions such as anger in this condition. Appropriate emotions in social interaction may underlie the social problems, job and their family. On the other hand, given that schizophrenic patients use their emotion regulation strategies of repression, this strategy leads to increased physiological arousal, especially for negative stimuli, and even disrupts memory for emotional events. This result is not consistent with the results of some studies on the lack of difference between schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects in the positive and negative meta-excitement. In its explanation, we can say that probably two research subjects are different in terms of quality of life or parental support.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Almasi, N. (2017) The Relationship of Meta-Emotion Dimensions and Positive and Negative Symptoms in the Patients of Chronic Schizophrenia. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 7, 62-67. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.72007.


[1] Karpick, K.R. (2005) Schizophrenic Communication: Art Therapy and Language Production. Unpublished Master of Science, The Fokia State University, Fokia.
[2] Ellgring, H. and Smith, M. (1998) Affect Regulation during Psychosis. In: Flack, J.D. and Laird, J.D., Eds., Emotions in Psychopathology Theory and Research, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[3] Aleman, A. and Kahn, R.S. (2005) Strange Feelings: Do Amygdale Abnormalities Dysregulate the Emotional Brain in Schizophrenia. Progress in Neurobiology, 77, 283-298.
[4] Aghevli, M.A., Blanchard, J.J. and Horan, W.P. (2003) The Expression and Experience of Emotion in Schizophrenia: A Study of Social Interactions. Psychiatry Research, 119, 261-270.
[5] Ballon, J.S., Kaur, T., Marks, I.I. and Cadenhead, K.S. (2007) Social Functioning in Young People at Risk for Schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 151, 29-35.
[6] Elder, R., Evans, K. and Nizette, D. (2005) Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. Mosby, London.
[7] Cardoso, S. (2005) Factors Associated with Low Quality of Life in Schizophrenia, Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 21, 1338-1348.
[8] Narvaez, J.M., Twamley, E.W., Mckibbin, C.L., Heaton, R.K. and Patterson, T.L. (2008) Subjective and Objective Quality of Life in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 98, 201-208.
[9] Stanley, S, (2008) Quality of Life & Family Burden in Caregivers of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Study India. Schizophrenia Research, 2, 1-279.
[10] Greenberg, L, (2002) Emotion-Focused Therapy: Coaching Clients through Their Feelings. American Psychological Association, Washington DC.
[11] Wells, A. and Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2004) Short Form of the Met Cognitions Questionnaire: Properties of the MCQ-30. Behavior Research and Therapy, 42, 385-396.
[12] Wegner, D.M. (1994) Ironic Processes of Mental Control. Psychological Review, 101, 34-52.
[13] Edwards, J., Jackson, H.J. and Pattison, P.E. (2002) Emotion Recognition via Facial Expression and Affective Prosody in Schizophrenia: A Methodological Review. Clinical, Psychological Review, 226, 789-832.
[14] Hooker, C. and Park, S. (2002) Emotion Processing and Its Relationship to Social Functionnig in Schizophernia Pations. Psychiatry Research, 112, 41-50.
[15] Cohen, A.S. and Minor, K.S. (2010) Emotional Experience in Patients with Schizophrenia Revisited: Meta-Analysis of Laboratory Studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36, 143-150.
[16] Bradford, J.M.W. (2008) Violence and Mental Disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 635-636.
[17] Taylor, P.J. (2008) Psychosis and Violence: Stories, Fears, and Reality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 647-659.
[18] Douglas, K.S., Guy, L.S. and Hart, S.D. (2009) Psychosis as a Risk Factor for Violence to Others: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 679-706.
[19] Hodgins, S. (2008) Violent Behavior among People with Schizophrenia: A Framework for Investigations of Causes, and Effective Treatment, and Prevention. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 363, 2505-2518.
[20] Fazel, S., Långström, N., Hjern, A., Grann, M. and Lichtenstein, P. (2009) Schizophrenia, Substance Abuse, and Violent Crime. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 301, 2016-2023.
[21] Nielssen, O. and Large, M. (2010) Rates of Homicide during the First Episode of Psychosis and after Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36, 702-712.
[22] Bo, S., Abu-Akel, A., Kongerslev, M., Helt Haahr, U. and Simonsen, E. (2011) Risk Factors for Violence among Patients with Schizophrenia. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 711-726.
[23] Akbar Fahimi, M., Tehrani-Doost, M. and Ghassemi, F. (2014) The Relationship between Global Functioning of Patients with Schizophrenia and Negative Emotional Faces Perception: An Event Related Potential Study (ERP). Journal of Modern Rehabilitation, 8, 52-61.
[24] Potvin, S., Lungu, O., Tikàsz, A. and Mendrek, A. (2017) Abnormal Effective Fronto-Limbic Connectivity during Emotion Processing in Schizophrenia. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 72, 1-8.
[25] Andreasen, N.C. (1990) Methods for Assessing Positive and Negative Symptoms. In: Andreasen, N.C., Ed., Schizophrenia: Positive and Negative Symptoms and Syndromes, S. Karger Publisher. Inc., New York, 73-85.
[26] Zadeh Mohammadi, A., Headari, M. and Majed Teamoori, M. (2002) The Study Effect of Music Therapy on Positive and Negative Symptoms of Patients with Schizophrenia. Journal of Psychology, 5, 231-249. (In Persian)
[27] Ghasempour, A., Narimani, M., Abolghasemi, A. and Hassanzadeh, S. (2013) Comparing the Ability to Recognize Facial Expression of Emotion in Paranoid Schizophrenic, Disorganized Schizophrenic and Normal Subjects. Scientific Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences, 21, 114-123.
[28] Shamlo, S. (2007) Mental Health. 19th Edition, Roshd, Tehran, 257-260. (In Persian)

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.