Share This Article:

Qi-Deficiency, Qi-Stagnation, Qi-Flowback, Blood Deficiency, and Fluid Retention in Patients with Depression, Psychiatric Disorders, or Psychosomatic Disorders

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:135KB) PP. 643-659
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.26099    4,287 Downloads   7,559 Views   Citations


The purpose of this study is to clarify the Qi-blood-fluid patterns of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, somatoform disorders and psychosomatic disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, etc. according to oriental medicine. The subjects were all new cases who consulted the psychosomatic clinic of Kyushu University Hospital from June 2000 to March 2001. Qi-deficiency, Qi-stagnation, Qi-flowback, blood deficiency, and fluid retention scores were calculated from the chief complaints and answers to the 102 questions of the Kyudai Medical Index (KMI), according to Terasawa’s Qi-blood-fluid scoring system. Since the results of physical examinations were not investigated, items requiring physical examination in Terasawa’s criteria were excluded from the calculation. The Qi-flowback, blood deficiency and fluid retention scores were significantly higher in females than males. Strong correlations were observed between Qi-deficiency and Qi-stagnation in males and between blood deficiency and fluid retention in both sexes. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that Qi-deficiency and Qi-stagnation in both sexes, especially Qi-deficiency, in males, were associated with major depression. Qi-flowback in females only and blood deficiency in males only were associated with anxiety disorders or a high State-trait Anxiety Inventory score. In females, Qi-flowback was also associated with somatoform disorders and irritable bowel syndrome. These results may be of assistance in treating occidental diseases in an oriental manner.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Kondo, T. , Tokunaga, S. , Sugahara, H. , Yoshimasu, K. , Akamine, M. , Kanemitsu, Y. , Fujisawa, K. , Masuda, Y. & Kubo, C. (2011). Qi-Deficiency, Qi-Stagnation, Qi-Flowback, Blood Deficiency, and Fluid Retention in Patients with Depression, Psychiatric Disorders, or Psychosomatic Disorders. Psychology, 2, 643-659. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.26099.


[1] Chan, J., Briscomb, D., Waterhouse, E., & Cannaby, A. M. (2002). An uncontrolled pilot study of HT7 for ‘stress’. Acupuncture in Medicine, 20, 74-77. doi:10.1136/aim.20.2-3.74
[2] Chilla, B. K., Knusel, P. R., Zollikofer, C. L., Huber, T., & Kubik-Huch, R. A. (2006). [Pelvic congestion syndrom]. Praxis, 95, 1583-1588. doi:10.1024/1661-8157.95.41.1583
[3] Ganeshan, A., Upponi, S., Hon, L. Q., Uthappa, M. C., Warakaulle, D. R., & Uberoi, R. (2007). Chronic pelvic pain due to pelvic congestion syndrome: the role of diagnostic and interventional radiology. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, 30, 1105-1111. doi:10.1007/s00270-007-9160-0
[4] Matsuoka, Y. (1990). KMI. In T. Kawano, H. Suematsu and R. Arazato (Eds.), Psychological Test for Psychosomatic Medicine (pp. 45-49). Tokyo: Asakura Publications.
[5] Mori, Y. (1998). Composition and application of kampo formulas (2nd ed.): Ishiyaku Publications.
[6] Nakasato, K. (1990). STAI. In T. Kawano, H. Suematsu and R. Arazato (Eds.), Psychological Test for Psychosomatic Medicine (pp. 27-31). Tokyo: Asakura Publications.
[7] Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). STAI manual. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press.
[8] Terasawa, K. (1990). Japanese Kampo medicine with cases. Tokyo: Igaku Syoin Publications.
[9] Terasawa, K. (2004). Evidence-based reconstruction of Kampo medicine: Part II-the concept of sho. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 1, 119-123. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh022
[10] Wang, X. J., Wang, L. L., Qiao, H. F., & Li, J. B. (2009). Observation on effective characteristics of acupuncture combined with medicine on depression of different syndrome types. Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, 29, 699-702.
[11] Yang, Y., & Zhi, D. (1994). Effects of acupuncture hypothermia and its relationship to changes of AVP contents in the plasma and CSF in the rabbits. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu Acupuncture Research, 19, 56-59.
[12] Yuasa, Y. (1999). The nature and functions of Qi-energy in psychosomatic system. Japanese Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine, 39, 19- 26.
[13] Zhou, L., Chen, W. K., & Mei, X. Y. (2006). Study on the characteristics of population distribution of TCM syndromes and its related factors in patients of depression. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, 26, 106-109.
[14] Zung, W. W., Richards, C. B., & Short, M. J. (1965). Self-rating depression scale in an outpatient clinic. Further validation of the SDS. Archives of General Psychiatry, 13, 508-515.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.