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The Gene as Natural Nanomaterial for Treatment of Diseases

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DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2017.71003    1,205 Downloads   1,867 Views   Citations
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ABSTRACT

As an application of the grand unified theory (GUT) to medicine, this paper introduces two natural nanomaterials—the gene and electromagnetic wave. They are involved in the proposed treatment of genetic and infectious diseases. It introduces the superstring as the fundamental building block of matter and the basic constituent of dark matter, one of the two fundamental states of matter. It also introduces the primum, unit of visible or ordinary matter, the other fundamental state of matter. They are convertible to each other by the action of basic cosmic or electromagnetic waves. Eleven biological laws define biology as a biological and physical theory. The gene is the primitive ingredient of living things and, therefore, the beginning of biological life and the virus the simplest living thing. Treatment ranges from genetic modification and alteration to remove undesirable symptom through genetic sterilization to stop the spread of the disease and outright destruction of the disease. Genetic sterilization and outright destruction apply also to infectious diseases. The paper concludes with a blueprint for research and development of appropriate technologies for the treatment.

1. Introduction

This paper is an application of the grand unified theory (GUT) [1] to medicine; the nanomaterial considered is the gene and to the extent that electromagnetic wave resonates with it, it is also a nanomaterial. They are natural nanomaterials because they exist in nature.

Electromagnetic wave is generated by the natural or residual vibration of an atomic nucleus. Its vibration characteristics determined by the composite vibration characteristics of the nuclear vibration that generates it. Every physical system including the atom and living cell has normal vibration due to the impact of electromagnetic and seismic waves the former coming from everywhere in the cosmos the latter generated by the interface of turbulence such as at conservative boundary between tectonic plates [3] [4] [5] between volcanic lava lamina and at the spinning hot core of a cosmological vortex [6] . Dark matter is one of the two fundamental states of matter, the other ordinary or visible matter. It consists of non-agitated superstrings. The superstring (Figure 1) is the fundamental building block of matter. It is a nested generalized physical fractal [7] sequence of superstrings where the first term is a circular helical circular loop. This makes the superstring indestructible, the requirement that physicists missed and accounts for the failure to find the fundamental building block of matter until 1997. Since the superstring is dark it is known only by its impact on visible matter through its dark component. Brain waves are electromagnetic waves encoded with the vibration characteristics of the genome, the dominant structure in the living cell. Its vibration characteristics are encoded on electromagnetic waves that resonate with it. They are the medium of the brain and the gene for their functions. A primumis agitated superstring and a unit of visible matter. The electron, +quark and −quark are basic prima because they comprise every atom. A primum and superstring are convertible to each other through the impact of electromagnetic waves. This establishes the link between dark and visible matter.

Figure 1. A non-agitated superstring its toroidal flux, a non-agitated superstring, traveling through its helical cycles at 7 (1022) cm/sec [8] .

3. Primal and Molecular Interactions

What is a primum? When the toroidal flux, a superstring traveling through its cycles at 7 (1022) cm/sec [9] it is thrown into erratic motion bouncing with other superstrings and turning it into a spike with the centroid traveling through the cycles [6] . It pulls the superstrings around the primum, by Flux-Low-Pressure Complementarity, into its induced vortex flux of superstrings their axes coinciding with the line at the center of the cylindrical eye making the primum, a magnet, its polarity in accordance with the right hand rule of electromagnetism (Figure 2). The induced vortex flux is counterclockwise for a positive primum, by convention, negative otherwise. The plane through the apex of its profile normal to its axis is the equatorial plane its intersection with the rim of its vortex the equator.

The following natural laws are central to primal and atomic interactions:

Flux Compatibility. Two prima of opposite toroidal flux spins attract at their equators but repel at their poles; otherwise, they repel at their equators but attract at their poles. Two prima of same toroidal flux spin connect equatorially only through a primum of opposite toroidal flux spin between them called connector.

Flux-Low-Pressure Complementarity. Low pressure sucks matter around it and the initial rush of matter towards a region of low pressure stabilizes into local or global coherent flux called turbulence; conversely, coherent flux induces low pressure around it.

The induced vortex flux is observed and measured as charge, its unit the electron’s charge: -1 (1.6 (10-19) coulombs). The electron, +quark, −quark, charges −1, +2/3, −1/3, respectively [10] , are the basic prima because they comprise every atom.

The primum’s toroidal and induced vortex flux and natural vibration of dark matter endow dark matter huge latent (dark) energy partially convertible to kinetic (visible) energy. The latent energy density of dark matter is 1026 joules/cubic foot according to de Broglie [11] , 8 (108) volts/cm according Seikejr [11] , and the equivalent of 18 kg/cu meter (relativistic conversion) according to Gerlovin [10] .

Figure 2. A simple primum, a bulged segment of a semi-agitated superstring, viewed from its equatorial plane. It is a magnet whose polarity is in accordance with the right rule of electromagnetism. For a positive primum if the index finger points in the direction of the vortex flux spin the thumb points to the north pole [8] .

Primal interaction is governed by Flux Compatibility and Flux-Low-Pressure Complementarity. The proton consists of two +quarks joined by a −quark at their rims, by Flux Compatibility (Figure 3(a)), their axis coplanar, by Energy Conservation; its charge: 2/3 − 1/3 + 1/3 = 1. Since a simple primum is charged, the neutral neutrino is a coupled pair of simple prima of numerically equal but opposite charges, say, +q and −q; its charge: +q + −q = 0.

In the proton the electron attaches to both +quarks but pushes the −quark (Flux Compatibility) so that their centers viewed from the north-pole form a quadrilateral. Their coherent induced fluxes in the interior suck light neutral neutrino and form the neutron (Figure 3(b)). Its charge: +2/3 − 1/3 + 2/3 − 1 + 0 = 0 (neutral). Since the masses of the neutron, proton and electron are known [12] and the composition of the neutron is known, the mass of the neutrino follows (Figure 4):

1) neutron: 1.674 (10−27) kg; proton: 1.672 (10−27) kg; electron: 9.611 (10−31) kg.

Converting to atomic mass unit (amu) their masses are:

2) neutron: 1.0087 amu; proton: 1.0073 amu; electron: 5.486 (10−8) amu.

The mass of the neutrino is η = 8.5 (10−8) amu or 1.55 times the electron’s mass (that of the electron is 1/1840th that of the proton’s).

Figure 3. (a) The proton consists of two +quarks joined by a −quark at their vortex flux’s rims, by Flux Compatibility; (b) The neutron consisting of a proton, an electron and a neutrino; since the neutrino is a coupled primum it is represented by a horizontal number 8 in the figure above [8] .

Figure 4. A light nucleus consisting of protons alone viewed from the north pole joined pairwise by −quarks (not shown) at their vortex flux’s rims [8] .

The neutrons pile up evenly on both sides of the equatorial plane by the principle of symmetry. By centrifugal force, Energy Conservation Energy and Conservation Equivalence, the neutrons of a heavy isotope pile up on opposite sides of the nuclear equatorial plane arranged symmetrically with respect to it as much as possible. Then the complete profile of the nucleus consists of a string of protons just beyond the protons away from the axis. By centrifugal force the nuclear center is hollow and contains massive accumulation of non-agitated superstrings (due to suction) called mini black hole.

A primum in flight rides on electromagnetic wave its envelope. In cylindrical coordinates the primum has the equation x = t, y(t) = β(sinnπt)(cosmkπt)), θ = nπt, t Î [−1/k,1/k], n, m, k, integers, n k, m even [13] . Its cycle energy is the Planck’s constant h = 6.64 ´ 10−34 J. Scooped up and carried by cosmic wave, its cycles flatten to the rapid oscillation, z = 0, x = t, y(t) = β(sinnπt)(cosmkπt) due to dark viscosity due to dark viscosity. Thus, a primum in flight is a fine sinusoidal arc. It becomes the photon, z = 0, y(t) = β(sinnπt)(cosmkπt), when it breaks off from its loop; the energy of one full cycle of the primum or one full arc of photon (its projection on the plane) is h and its toroidal flux speed along the arc is 7 (1022) cm/sec. Figure 5 shows a primum or photon lodged between two parallel electromagnetic waves with the two half arcs as its envelope.

4. The Unified Theory of Evolution

Since in biology we deal with the tiny superstrings in large numbers (some at great speed), processes, motion, etc.., the uncertainty or ambiguity of small and large numbers applies; this is the basis of our first biological law and the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle [14] .

Stochastic Complexity Law. Physical processes, configurations and interactions proceed stochastically towards greater complexity subject to natural laws, already attained structures and other boundary conditions.

High kinetic energy limits formation of complex physical systems since it rips clusters apart. Moreover, the more complex the configuration or process the less likely it occurs. Living organisms emerged only when the Earth cooled sufficiently and allowed more complex clustering by carbon atoms. Carbon has four valence electrons that bond

Figure 5. A primum of photon in flight (shaded) is lodged between two electromagnetic waves of opposite crests with wavelengths of the same order of magnitude as its envelope (left). The first two terms of the nested fractal structure of an electromagnetic wave is shown on the right [8] .

with other carbon atoms to form huge strong organic compounds, e.g., the cells, tissues and organs of biological organisms. Carbon molecule has the strongest possible bonding owing to its simplicity, symmetry, stability and “rule of 8” principle of chemistry.

The overwhelming base element of all living things on Earth is carbon although there are rare known metal-based living things underground [15] . In the hot early universe only simple prima formed. Stochastic Complexity debunks the common belief that carbon, e.g., oil, comes from more complex organisms. It is the other way around.

Stability Law. Although possible configurations and clustering of matter arise stochastically only stable ones remain or are replicated.

The Stability Law is a generalization of Darwin’s theory of natural selection [16] . Physical systems that violate a physical principle are unstable and vanish in due course. Examples are man-made short-lived prima (by non-redundancy and non-extravagance principles). In biology unstable species become extinct.

Since heat agitates and keeps the prima simple it raises within limits the chance of formation of more diverse and complex configurations of matter. This accounts for the diversity of living organisms in magma oozing out of cavities in the Earth’s interior, e.g., the great diversity of biological species in volcanic Galapagos and Hawaiian Islands [17] .

Resonance and Superposition Law. Two waves of the same order of magnitude have maximum resonance when they have exactly the same characteristics and the principal determinant of level of resonance is wavelength or frequency the secondary determinant amplitude variation; when two waves of different characteristics resonate with each other their wave characteristics superpose on each other and form composite wave.

5. The Gene

We consider the gene in the nucleus of the cell. It is the simplest biological system. It consists of a sequence of four nucleotide bases, adenine paired with thymine through hydrogen bonding and guanine paired with cytosine also joined by hydrogen. In an organism the genes form a sequence in the cellular nucleus that makes up each of the pair of DNA parallel helical strands of the same composition that are mirror images of each other coiled into a helix in the chromosomes (the topologically appropriate configuration for passing on the genes to offspring cells in mitosis without entanglement). The genome particularly the sequencing of the genes (genetic code) determines the physical and physiological characteristics of a living thing. This was known to Gregor Mendel a couple of centuries ago. He did extensive experiments with garden peas and discovered the First Law of Gametes (the First Law of Gametes) which applies to all living things [18] .

Brain waves are electromagnetic waves encoded with the natural vibration characteristics of a living cell and since the genome is the dominant structure in the cell its natural vibration characteristics are determined by the genome. A milestone in biology is the discovery that brain waves are the common medium of the brain and gene for their functions [19] [20] [21] . This follows from the findings in that pain sensation (due to vibration of neural chains by brain waves) which occurs in the CIR produces molecule in the cellular membrane and the principles of uniformity, non-redundancy and non- extravagance of the Energy Conservation Equivalence Law. Brain waves are electromagnetic waves encoded with the vibration characteristics of the genome in the nucleus of a living cell. The primary function of the brain is control and coordination of body functions, processes and conscious motion directly through the creative-integrative region (CIR) and automatic functions through the secondary nervous system centered in the spinal column and extending through the network of nerves down the extremities but monitored by the CIR [22] . Its secondary function is thought. The primary function of the genes in the genome is recomposing the atoms and molecules from the food that we eat in the cellular membrane in accordance with the genetic code in their sequencing to produce the tissues through the brain waves they emit their secondary function passing on the genetic code to the offspring cell in mitosis [21] . Substances in the human body are produced in appropriate glands generally as part of their respective normal functions through the action of brain waves coming from the automatic nervous system. In some cases their release is triggered by thought and feelings, e.g., salivary secretion when one thinks of lemon and delicious food and seminal secretion in sexual activity.

The next biological law is central to genetics [21] .

Genetic Determinant Law. Each gene determines a specific physical characteristic of a living thing; conversely, every physical characteristic determines a gene.

It is the gene that distinguishes living from nonliving thing, the virus being the simplest. It is not an organism and cannot reproduce by itself. Therefore, it enters the nucleus of a host cell and emits its brain waves that agitate and convert superstrings in the cellular membrane of the host cell to prima that form the same gene in accordance with the genetic code. The next law sheds light on genetic alteration or mutation and evolution.

Genetic Brain Wave Propagation and Encoding. In an organism the gene generates and propagates brain waves; it is in harmony and at resonance with all its genes. A foreign gene or mutant may have discordant resonance with the chromosome that agitates the superstrings there and converts them into its mirror image in one of the pair of DNA strands of the recipient cell. Then it quickly converts superstrings to its mirror image on the other DNA strand of the pair yielding a new pair of genes, a mutant that determines new physical characteristics.

Mutation is complete when every cell has been similarly altered genetically. Then the characteristic determined by it becomes hereditary. First, a gene is altered in other cells, locally at first, until it spreads to the entire body. It follows that genetic disorder may be acquired but once acquired it gets encoded in other cells and may not be removed beyond a certain period. It can only be neutralized by a neutralizer gene or eliminated without side effect by electromagnetic sterilization.

When one is engaged in mental activity brain waves are generated by neural vibrations in the CIR and propagated across dark matter through the dendrite tips which light up like a radio transmitter [20] . This is the basis of the phenomenon of extra sensory perception (ESP) where one’s brain waves resonate with someone else’s neural vibrations in the CIR [21] . There is significant scientific verification of it in dogs [21] .

Corollary. A foreign gene may, by resonance, superpose its brain waves on brain waves emitted by the host organism to form composite brain waves that modify each other’s brain wave characteristics and, in effect, produce a composite gene.

In the application of the Internal-External Factor Dichotomy Law to evolution the gene is the internal and principal factor and the environment the external and secondary factor in every cell, a departure from Darwin’s theory of evolution [16] . For example, brain waves from an external source create its mirror image in the cell of the host organism, a mutant. Then this new gene becomes the internal factor that induces change in the host organism.

A cell is altered when suitable new gene is introduced their brain waves superposing on each other and forming composite vibration characteristics. In effect, their base elements form a composite gene. Genetic alteration also involves changes in the sequence of genetic base elements. Radiation including background radiation may also cause genetic alteration in accordance with Stochastic Complexity; so does direct exposure to a foreign gene, especially, a primate’s. Frequent, consistent and sustained use of body part may create a new gene in accordance with the Determinant Law. Recall that like the gene, the brain emits energetic brain waves that produce molecules in its cellular membrane or modifies or alters a gene in the chromosomes of other cells [21] [22] . Reference [21] discusses how a mutant gene enters the human cell. Consider the gene that determines the hair of the monkey. If the embryo is exposed to its brain waves it produces its mirror image in the genome which is immediately replicated in the other DNA strand. The birthmark that is created is a patch of monkey hair. Birthmark may also be induced by the mother. If a pregnant mother is pre-occupied with object, living or dead, the baby may have a birthmark that has a feature of the object. For example, there was a pregnant mother who liked to eat and was pre-occupied occupied with catfish. The baby had a pair of bluish whiskers dropping off from corners of her mouth.

We summarize our findings.

Genetic Alteration Law. The possible sources of genetic alteration are: 1) radiation, e.g., electromagnetic waves, 2) exposure to foreign gene, 3) frequent, consistent and sustained use of body part, 4) exposure to some chemicals (carcinogen), 5) pre-occu- pation with some object and 6) introduction of a neutralizer gene.

Genetic alteration includes the emergence of a new gene (mutant) and change in the vibration characteristics of a gene. This law has application to training of athletes (drills) by creating suitable reflexes, skills and muscular support. It applies to training of performing artists like singers and pianists. It is also manifested in the evolution of species that walked on four legs and became erect. Occasionally, members stood up to see farther in search of food or to spot an intruder. Over time, this new physical characteristic of standing erect became encoded genetically along with appropriate reflexes and features until standing became the natural feature. Then the front legs found new functions and the anatomy of both front legs and the face are genetically encoded and modified accordingly. Moreover, genetic modification or alteration can restore damaged tissues inflicted by a genetic disease such as muscular dystrophy can be restored by physical therapy.

Rice farmers on plain fields in rural Philippines develop flat feet by sustained and consistent walking on mud, sometimes waist-deep (flat foot sinks less on mud). The effect is flat-footedness-thickening of the tissues of the flat of the foot which is genetically encoded. While it is subject to Stochastic Complexity this physical feature is the stable one in this situation. Farmers also develop oversized protruding strong big toes that are slightly arched away from the little toes by sticking their big toes into slippery soil while climbing steep hills. This is reinforced when climbing a coconut tree by sticking the big toe into narrow cuts on the trunk. The Stochastic Complexity and Stability Laws along with BL8 account for it; it is not the result of thought or intelligence. Genetic modification or alteration also occurs in an adopted child according to the corollary.

When a person is in pain he may cope with it by adjusting posture, e.g., when the pain is in the spinal column, he adjusts posture to ease it and when sustained over a long period corresponding genetic alteration and encoding may occur.

It is popularly believed that humans originated in Africa and that humans elsewhere in the globe are the result of migration. This is at odds with the Stochastic Complexity and Stability Laws since all species come from the same stuff-superstrings-that fill up the entire cosmos. Moreover, since other species occur in several places on the globe why not the human species? As a corollary, the existence of life (even intelligent beings) elsewhere in the cosmos is not remote. The likely scenario is: a given condition gives rise to emergence of a species favored by it.

The next law offers further explanation of mutation and birthmarks.

Law of Induced Mutation, Genetic Modification and Alteration. When a new gene has discordant resonance with a gene in the host cell its brain waves may agitate the superstrings in its chromosomes and produce its mirror image there in one DNA strand that replicates itself in the opposite strand to form a mature pair of genes. When brain waves of a foreign gene resonate with a gene of the host cell the characteristics of one superpose on the other and produce a composite (modified) gene that emits its composite brain wave characteristics.

How does nature insure that every part of the body grow in the right place? A gene turns on only in the right place to convert superstrings to suitable molecules on queue from the surrounding environment. This is how the cells and tissues are produced in various parts of the body which are determined by the genes responsible for their development. The specific environment is determined by enzymes and distribution of cumulus cells that initially surround the egg cell. Some chemicals are produced by specialized glands in the same way. Moreover, even turn-over of cells is genetic in the sense that each replacement has the genetic code of the oxidized old cell. This is what happens in the healing of wounds. The exceptions are neural cells which are oxidized without replacement. A matured brain has a fixed number of neurons; their number shrinks with age. Fortunately, the most developed brain has barely a quarter of its neurons activated. The next natural law articulates some of our findings.

Genetic Activation Law. Activation or non-activation of a gene proceeds on cue from the immediate environment; this avoids anomaly in the development of an organism.

This law applies to the entire genome so that it is always active.

6. Reproduction

Reproduction insures continuance of a species (survival) subject to the environment which may change over time and affect its course in accordance with the Stability Law. A series of mutations changes the genetic code of species leading to 1) quantitative improvement or 2) nodal point where a new species splits off from the old (bifurcation). Control refers to dominance over the environment and other species and advancement means rising capability to cope with problems of survival and control including improvement of intelligence.

From the simplest to the most complex living thing beyond virus, reproduction is, essentially, cell division. The only new element is fertilization in plants and animals but even this is followed by cell division that results in the growth of the embryo.

We highlight new information about reproduction.

1) The gene sequencing is part of the program for reproduction of individual member of a species that determines the configuration and composition of the molecules and replenishes the tissues and organs of the organism. The genes that comprise the DNA of an organism, arranged in the sequencing of the base elements that form them, encode its entire structure, physical characteristics and behavior.

2) The gene is responsible reproduction, growth, gender and sensitivity to the environment and, in the case of humans, thought. Even in practical affairs we can see the centrality of the gene-in the development of personality and vulnerability to certain diseases.

3) The only topologically feasible DNA symmetric replication without entanglement during mitosis is the double helix that splits longitudinally between the pair of DNA strands, one of the pair slightly contracting as inner coil and sliding out attached to one of the offspring cells the other DNA strand attached to the other offspring cell. In each offspring cell a DNA strand replicates its mirror image in the parallel helical chromosome through the brain waves it emits to complete its parallel pair of DNA strands, again, a matured DNA pair.

4) Each male sperm cell has either x- or y-chromosomes in its single DNA strand. Fertilization occurs when the sperm cell penetrates the egg cell and inserts its x- or y-chromosome to pair with the egg’s DNA strand and form parallel pair of helical DNA strands. This pairing is the reverse of mitosis. The helical half-chromosomes of the sperm inserts itself into the helical half-chromosomes of the egg, expands slightly to pair with the female egg’s single helical DNA strand and by forming their respective mirror images completes a full pair of parallel DNA strands of x-, x- or x-, y-chromo- some depending on the chromosome in the sperm. By resonance, a gene from each partner that will produce the tissues of the same part of the body of the offspring forms a pair with its counterpart mutually superposing each other’s brain wave characteristics (composite wave characteristics) and, in effect, forming a composite gene that determines the physical characteristics of that body part of the offspring. If the brain-wave- characteristics of a partner’s gene are more prominent than those of its pair this partner’s physical characteristics will be dominant in the offspring, recessive otherwise. A gene of one partner that does not have a counterpart produces its mirror image on the other DNA strand forming a new gene which will be inherited by the offspring.

5) Mitosis conforms to energy conservation in terms of symmetry of end result, namely, the replication or fractalization of cells with shared structure and characteristics in the series of cell division that ensues.

6) The male genital has counterpart components in the female genital the difference being that the male characteristics are dominant in the former (and vice versa), differentiation reinforced by male hormones.

7) In rare cases (e.g., hermaphrodite) there is no clear dominance of one gender characteristics over the other so that the individual has both penis and vagina. Dominance is sustained and expressed in feelings, emotions and personality make-up by the appropriate hormones which are genetically determined but hormonal imbalance can erode them. Moreover, the levels of hormones and enzymes and nature of physiological process involved in the development of the fetus are genetically determined. However, since genetic alteration is formed in accordance with the Stochastic Complexity and Stability Laws and influenced by the environment, e.g., mutation, “gayness” may appear at any point in the family tree (similar analysis for lesbian). This has social and political implications for the gay and lesbian movements for equality.

8) It is believed that genetic diseases are inherited. Not always, according to the Law of Induced Mutation, Genetic Modification and Alteration. It is now known for instance that diabetes can be triggered by liberal consumption of sugar over a long period of time. Since diabetes is due to deficiency in the production of insulin by the pancreas we cannot rule out the possibility of pancreatic therapy to stimulate insulin to cure the disease.

9) A new gene (mutant) in the body emits brain waves in all directions that convert superstrings in one of the pair of chromosomes of each cell to basic prima that form a gene that by the brain waves it emits, creates its mirror image in the opposite chromosome resulting in a sequence of pairs of base elements, a pair of new genes. When the DNA strand splits during mitosis each gene in a pair is passed on to the daughter cells, creates its mirror image and forms a new pair of matured genes and the process and DNA are replicated there. The same process is replicated in the pair of matured daughter cells. A gene from another species may similarly emit its brain waves, form its mirror image in the human chromosome and create a new gene. This is the scientific basis of birthmark. Birthmark may also be self-induced on the embryo of the pregnant mother by being mentally pre-occupied with an object, living or not, projecting brain waves that create the gene encoded with its brain wave characteristics.

10) Over time, all cells will have this new gene but it will produce tissues and chemicals selectively in accordance with the Genetic Activation Law where every cell in the body carries this gene.

11) Not all genes are inherited from the parents; some are acquired. Once acquired, a gene replicates itself in every cell over time and can be removed only by genetic sterilization since the sterilized gene is not retained in the new cells in the normal turnover of cells and eventually excreted with the dead cells.

The next biological law incorporates some of our findings.

Law of Reproduction and Correspondence. During fertilization the single full DNA strands from the sperm and egg are paired, by Resonance, so that 1) each pair of genes that produces the same part of the embryo are opposite each other in the chromosomes of the fertilized egg; 2) their brain waves superpose on each other resulting in common composite brain waves; 3) unpaired genes from each parent DNA produce their mirror images in the other to complete genetic composition of the fertilized egg and 4) the energy involved in 1)-3) causes instability in the fertilized egg that triggers mitosis and starts the development of the embryonic offspring.

In humans the embryonic cells are physically identical during the first few days of cell division. Differentiation begins with changes in nuclear instruction in the activation of the genes by turning them on, i.e., translating genetic codes to produce appropriate tissues and chemicals or keeping them turned off temporarily for some and permanently for others. For example, the genes that will produce the tissues of the embryonic heart will turn on and produce the right molecules in the cellular membranes there including the base molecules of genetic materials where the genes will be replicated along with the cell division that builds the embryonic heart. The genes there with genetic instruction to produce the pancreatic tissues are permanently shut off and eventually excreted when the cell dies.

This question is asked quite often: is there life elsewhere in our universe? The answer is: quite likely since living things are made up of the same stuff-the superstring.

During the period of growth of an individual the cells multiply exponentially and die linearly (mainly through oxidation). When the individual reaches full growth the growth function tapers off to a linear function and at old age the linear growth function takes a lesser slope than the cell death function, the individual shrinks including the vertebra. However, the neurons are exceptions: they die (oxidize) without replacement so that as soon as full growth is attained the brain begins to shrink steadily but at increased rate at old age. However, at a young age, the shrinking is offset by neural activation due to creative new and creative mental activity (the CIR directs and monitors physical and mental activity [21] ). Fortunately, the most developed brain has only a fraction of the brain activated. What are examples of creative activity? On the mental side, productive research is one. On the physical side doing new exercises and sports.

7. Central Role of the Gene in Evolution

The Determinant Law is the key natural law that pushes evolution forward. In the development of a species new genes appear steadily in accordance with Stochastic Complexity. If the specific characteristics determined by the genes fall within the parameters favored by the environment with respect to survival, control and advancement, the recipient species will remain stable or even advance; otherwise, it becomes extinct. Needless to say, changes in the environment alter the species’ stability. If new genes create new species then bifurcation occurs and a new species of different genetic content emerges and departs from the old one. Otherwise, there is simply continuation or advancement. For example, six million years ago, the snake had a pair of legs located a third of its length from the tail’s tip. That must have been clumsy and unstable. Bifurcation occurred, the new species acquiring agile body that made it wiggle through the bushes and climb trees with ease. Then the pair of legs atrophied but left a pair of scars. Thus, there is some gene that encodes them, perhaps, an alteration of the original (a pair of scars remains as relic of the pair of legs in the spots where the legs used to be).

Biologist Charles Darwin and Frederick Engels [16] [23] agree on the existence of nodal points in nature. For example, at 100˚C water abruptly changes to ice crystals and water at 100° C to steam both without intermediate state. The nodal points from ice to water and from water to steam are constants of nature; so is the speed of the toroidal flux of the superstring the latter by the synchronization principle. Snake species with legs appeared 6 million year ago although the atrophied legs have left scars which are visible. A nodal point occurred that gave rise to huge muscular snake, e.g., python, anaconda, the old species remaining. Then size became a disadvantage (instability): (a) it requires huge amount of food to sustain and (b) their prey that had also become smaller could hide in holes and crevices for their survival; these aside from competition for food with other snakes. At this point bifurcation (a nodal point) is reached resulting in appearance of smaller snakes that catch their prey in holes or crevices. Then another bifurcation occurred: appearance of snakes with venom for protection and digestion. Snake with toxin split from the large strong anaconda and python (bifurcation). It is a nodal point in the snake species. Of course, the emergence of life is also a nodal point.

Darwin and Engels believed that a nodal point is the result of accumulated “little changes” and since then evolutionists have been looking for the transitional species called the missing link between the crawling primate and the erect humans. This is a bit ambiguous: does “little changes” involve “genetic alteration”? At any rate, the missing link would have been unstable and could not sustain genetic encoding. For, it would have elongated body slanted forward away from the vertical and attached to the femoral bones at the lower end. Then their attachment at the upper end of the femoral bones would be battling against the torque on the body due to gravity so that the species would be unstable and extinct. In other words, the missing link does not exist.

For a complex living thing it takes a series of mutations to reach a nodal point in accordance with the Quantity-Quality Transformation Law [23] . However, for the virus it takes only a single genetic mutation to create a new virus. That is why there is risk that a virus in other species may mutate and transfer to humans. Some diseases mutate and feed on what were previously their cure, e.g., some species of typhoid feed on the antibiotic that was previously the cure for it and some species of malaria feed on quinine that used to cure it. Such changes and advancement and even extinction of species are in accordance with the Stochastic Complexity and Stability.

Not all the genes of an organism are in the genome. In humans 37 genes in the mitochondria region outside the nucleus [24] . When the body is starved of a substance it needs, the mitochondrial cells compose it from the reserve fat in the body. However, starvation emaciates the body. Energy is supplied by the positive prima and the mitochondrial genes direct it to where it is needed in the cell using the brain waves they emit. There was a report of two alcoholics in Japan and the US under detoxification but became inebriated anyway because the mitochondrial genes converted the reserve fat to alcohol.

Metabolism decomposes the nutritional substances into its component atoms and molecules. The sequencing of the gene (genetic code) composes them back; they form the tissues of living things. The process is activated upon signal from the RNA to the appropriate genes in accordance with the Genetic Activation law. Therefore, we conclude that the nucleus has all the conditions to switch on and activate the chromosomal genes.

The reproductive process has practical applications in agriculture, especially, plant breeding. In medicine scientists are able to isolate a defective gene; then a neutralizer gene is introduced into the body to alter the genetic code and remove the undesirable symptom and cure the ailment. Now molecular biology and genetics can design stem cells to replace dead tissues and offset cell degeneration due to aging.

8. From the Table to Excretion

Metabolism starts in the mouth where food is broken into component elements. In the stomach hydrochloric acid further breaks them up into component prima where they are absorbed into the blood stream starting in the stomach. The protons are absorbed by the cellular membrane where the mitochondrial genes break them up with their brain waves into their component +quarks and ?quarks (which are carriers of energy in their vortex fluxes) and carried to where they are needed in the cell (any physical process including mitosis involves absorption of energy). All toxins that get into the blood stream, e.g., hydrochloric acid, are detoxified by the liver that produces the vile for digestion. Excretion of waste is done by the kidney, sweat glands and the large intestine.

9. Electromagnetic Treatment of Genetic and Infectious Diseases

Among the genetic diseases are cystic fibrosis, systemic lupos erythematosus, diabetes, muscular dystrophy and mental disorder. The symptom of a genetic disease is determined by a gene. Some are inherited; others are acquired. Infectious diseases aside from some microorganisms include virus and some plants, e.g., fungus.

Treatment of Genetic Disease

Cystic fibrosis is a disease where the symptom is over secretion of mucous which accumulates in the lung and can be fatal. The only cure for it is the introduction of a neutralizer gene that has different natural vibration characteristics from the cystic fibrosis gene but has the same order of magnitude of wavelength as that of the cystic fibrosis gene. They superpose each other’s vibration characteristics and the composed characteristics remove the symptom of the diseases and cure it. How is it done? A benign lever virus, e.g., cold virus, is infected with a neutralizer gene and inhaled. Being a virus it enters the nucleus of the cell to reproduce itself. Both the neutralizer and virus genes are activated in accordance with the Genetic Activation Law and the former fires its brain waves which resonates with and superposes its vibration characteristics on that of the cystic fibrosis gene effectively curing the diseases.

Treatment of Cancer

Cancer is treated separately because of its urgency. This requires an appropriate technology that emits radiation of the same order of magnitude of wavelength as that of the cancer gene. By raising the intensity just enough to sterilize the disease the disease is effectively cured. This treatment applies to any infectious disease in the body. In this treatment the body is exposed to the radiation but will resonate only with the target gene so that there is no side effect.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Escultura, E. (2017) The Gene as Natural Nanomaterial for Treatment of Diseases. Open Journal of Biophysics, 7, 25-40. doi: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2017.71003.

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