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Health Risk Assessment for Bromate (BrO3) Traces in Ozonated Indian Bottled Water

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DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.25066    6,396 Downloads   11,598 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

For this study, bromide and bromate ions in various commercial brands of Indian bottled water samples were estimated using ion chromatography. The measured mean concentration of bromide and bromate ions in water samples was found to be 28.13 µg/L and 11.17 µg/L respectively. The average level of bromate in Indian bottled water was found to be slightly higher (~ 12%) than the acceptable limits (10 µg/L) recommended by USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Though, kinetically, it is predicted that 62.5% (6.25 µg/L) of bromide in bottled water is needed to convert into bromate upon ozonation to exceed the minimum acceptable limits, but the average formation of bromate determined to be only 26.77% of the predicted concentration. Bromate concentration in bottled water showed a strong correlation with bromide suggesting that its formation in water is very much influenced and controlled by bromide content. The objective of the present study was to determine the BrO3) content of commercially available different brands of bottled drinking water in India and to estimate the health risks to population due to ingestion. Results of estimated excess cancer risk and chemical toxicity risk to Indian population due to ingestion of bottled water were presented and discussed.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Kumar, S. Rout and R. Singhal, "Health Risk Assessment for Bromate (BrO3) Traces in Ozonated Indian Bottled Water," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2011, pp. 571-580. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.25066.

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