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Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Particulate Matter in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

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DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.611113    2,685 Downloads   3,098 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 for January 2012 up to October 2013 were measured at two sites; a suburban area, Riyadh airport (AP) and an urban area, King Fahd road district (KF) (densely trafficked site). Daily concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 measured at these two sites were highly variable. The temporal variation observed either for PM10 or PM2.5 was associated mainly with the dust events. The annual pattern of PM10 and PM2.5 at the AP station shows a significant increase in spring and summer (dusty seasons) where monthly mean concentrations of up to 696 μg·m-3 PM10 were recorded in March. PM10 concentrations during winter months are significantly lower, with 65 μg·m-3 measured in November and 78 μg·m-3 measured in December. January exhibits PM10 concentrations little above 100 μg·m-3. Both PM10 and PM2.5 showed substantial variations at these two monitoring stations during the study period. In the ur-ban station (King Fahd), average annual PM10 varied by up to roughly a factor of two. This variation implies that local emission sources in this site often contribute much (i.e. greater than half) of the PM10 mass on annual average. The variation of monthly (temporal) mean PM10 at KF station showed more or less similar results to the AP station. Higher concentrations were observed during spring and summer (12%, 17% and 13% in Feb., March and April respectively and 17, 15% during June and July). Starting from September and October, PM10 concentrations started to drop to 7% and 8% respectively. The relationships between the mean values of suspended particle concentrations and meteorological variables (relative humidity ambient temperature and wind speed) were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the influence of weather factors upon dust particulates is largely inconclusive. However, At KF station a moderate positive correlation was observed between wind speed and PM.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Modaihsh, A. , Al-Barakah, F. , Nadeem, M. and Mahjoub, M. (2015) Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Particulate Matter in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 1293-1307. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.611113.

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