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Effects of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Cognition on Parkinson’s Disease Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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DOI: 10.4236/apd.2015.44011    3,751 Downloads   4,270 Views  

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Dementia is frequently associated with Parkinson’s disease, especially in later stages. Efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChI) in Alzheimer’s dementia is well established. However, treatment with ChI in Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) remains controversial. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effects of ChI in PDD. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library up to March 2014 using the descriptors “Parkinson’s disease”, “dementia in Parkinson’s disease”, “cognition”, “acetylcholinesterase inhibitors”, “cholinesterase inhibitors”, “anticholinesterase agents”, “rivastigmine”, “donepezil” and “galantamine” (Pubmed search strategy). All randomized, doubleblinded, placebo-controlled trials that met the eligibility criteria and assessed the effects of ChI in PDD were considered for analysis. There were no restrictions regarding paper language. Summary effect-sizes were presented as standardized mean differences (SMD) and the pooled analysis was performed with a fixed-effects model. Outcomes considered for analysis were the Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) score and the cognition scale for evaluation of dementia ADAS-Cog. The degree of heterogeneity between included studies was assessed through the I2 test. Results: After a comprehensive search, 175 references were retrieved. From these, five randomized trials involving 946PDD subjects were included in the review. Four studies used donepezil and only one study used rivastigmine. The pooled analysis of five studies that assessed the effects of ChI in MMSE total score showed a SMD of 0.24 (CI 95% 0.11 - 0.38). Three studies considered the effects of ChI on Adas-Cog and the pooled results showed a SMD of 0.21 (CI 95% 0.07 - 0.35). There was no significant heterogeneity between the studies. Conclusions: The results of this systematic review and meta- analysis suggest that ChI improves cognitive impairment in PDD subjects. Despite statistically significant, the translation of these results into relevant clinical improvement should be taken with caution, as the studies did not address what would be considered a clinically significant result.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Martorelli, M. , Monteiro, L. and Melo, A. (2015) Effects of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Cognition on Parkinson’s Disease Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Advances in Parkinson's Disease, 4, 90-96. doi: 10.4236/apd.2015.44011.

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