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Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentration in Hand Dug Well Water from Selected Land Uses in Wukari Town, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.39001    2,622 Downloads   3,174 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Hand dug well water remains the major source of domestic (drinking) water in the city of Wukari. This study was aimed at the assessment of heavy metal concentration in hand dug well water from four land uses of abattoir (A), waste dump site (B), residential (C) and commercial (D) in Wukari Town, Wukari, Taraba State. There are about 76 hand dug wells in the study area and for the purpose of this study. Yamane (1967) sample size technique was adopted. Based on this, 95% confidence level and an error limit of 5% were adopted. Thus, four (4) samples A, B, C and D of hand dug well water purposively drawn from the study area used sterilized bottles. The heavy metals tested for in the water samples include: zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), potassium (K), phosphate, and chromium. The results of the analyses were compared with the NSDWQ*MPL and FEPA (2001) standards. The results shows that the concentration of magnesium and manganese in hand dug well water samples A, B, C and D had higher concentrations than the maximum permissible limits of NSDWQ*MPL and FEPA (2001) standards and the concentration of zinc, copper, iron, potassium, phosphate and chromium in hand dug well water sample A, B, C and D was at different compliance level with NSDWQ*MPL and FEPA (2001) standards. ANOVA (F-ratio) statistics at P_0.05 for variation in heavy metal concentration in hand dug well water from land uses A, B, C and D were insignificant. For now, it can be concluded that hand dug well water in Wukari Town is fit for domestic use, but that efforts should be made to reduce the magnesium and manganese concentration by having control on the anthropogenic factors that lead to such high concentration levels or else, soon this source of water may become unfit for domestic use. It was recommended that aggressive public awareness and enlightenment on possible impacts of hand dug well water pollution from human activities should be embarked upon by relevant agencies.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Oyatayo, K. , Songu, G. , Amos, G. and Ndabula, C. (2015) Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentration in Hand Dug Well Water from Selected Land Uses in Wukari Town, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 3, 1-10. doi: 10.4236/gep.2015.39001.

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