Share This Article:

Microbial Attributes of Infested Soil Suppressive to Bacterial Wilt by Bokashi Amendments

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:300KB) PP. 1239-1247
DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.610119    3,165 Downloads   3,603 Views  

ABSTRACT

Bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is a major tomato disease in tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is difficult to be managed, since no single measure confers significant contribution for disease control. Among the cultural practices available for disease management, bokashi provides nutrients to the plants, increasing the microbial biomass, improving the quality of the soil and, in some cases, protecting plants against diseases. In this work, we evaluated the effect of three different bokashis (Embrapa—BE; poultry—BP and cattle—BC) in two soils artificially and naturally infested with R. solanacearum, on the suppression of bacterial wilt in tomato. Disease control is discussed upon measurements on the contents of microbial biomass carbon (MBC), on total organic carbon (TOC), on basal respiration (BR), on metabolic coefficient (qCO2) and on microbial coefficient (qMIC). The experiment was implemented in greenhouse, with completely randomized design and factorial arrangement of treatments 2 × 3 (two soils × three bokashis). Disease suppression, assessed through wilt incidence 20 and 30 days after transplanting, was better observed in the naturally infested soil, where BP and BE were more efficient in controling the disease. TOC contents were higher in the artificially infested soil compared to that naturally infested, whereas the qMIC presented higher value for the naturally infested soil, which had greater contribution of MBC. Higher rates of BR and qCO2 were observed for the naturally infested soil with BC, probably indicating high plant stress caused by the disease in this treatment. Moreover, a high and positive correlation coefficient was found between the variables qCO2 and the number of infected plants at 30 days after transplanting. In the artificially infested soil, a negative correlation was found between the number of infected plants at 20 days after transplanting and TOC.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

R. Fontenelle, M. , A. Lopes, C. , E. P. Lima, C. , Soares, D. , B. Silva, L. , Zandonadi, D. , B. Souza, R. and W. Moita, A. (2015) Microbial Attributes of Infested Soil Suppressive to Bacterial Wilt by Bokashi Amendments. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 1239-1247. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.610119.

References

[1] Lopes, C.A. (2015) Bacterial Wilt—A Threatening Disease of Tomato Cultivated under Warm Temperatures. Brasília. Comunicado Técnico Embrapa Hortaliças, 109.
[2] Hayward, A.C. (1994) The Hosts of Pseudomonas solanacearum. In: Hayward, A.C. and Hartman, G.L. (Eds.), Bacterial Wilt: The Disease and Its Causative Agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum, CAB International, Wallingford, 9-24.
[3] Crosse, J.E. (1967) Plant Pathogenic Bacteria in Soil. In: Gray, T.R.G. and Parkinson, D., Eds., The Ecology of Soil Bacteria, University Press, Liverpool, 552-572.
[4] Quezado-Soares, A.M. and Lopes, C.A. (1994) Lack of Control of Potato Bacterial Wilt by Avirulent Mutants of Pseudomonas solanacearum and by Fluorescent Pseudomonads. Bacterial Wilt Newsletter, 11, 3-5.
[5] Moffet, M.L., Giles, J.E. and Wood, B.A. (1983) Survival of Pseudomonas solanacearum Biovars 2 and 3 in Soil: Effect of Moisture and Soil Type. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 15, 587-591.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(83)90054-8
[6] Kado, C.I. (2010) Plant Bacteriology. APS Press, St. Paul, 336 p.
[7] French, E.R. (1994) Strategies for Integrated Control of Bacterial Wilt of Potatoes. In: Hayward, A.C. and Hartman, G. L., Eds., Bacterial Wilt: The Disease and Its Causative Agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum, CAB International, Wallingford, 199-207.
[8] Gomes, W.R. and Pacheco, E. (1988) Composto organico. Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras. Lavras. Boletim técnico, 11.
[9] Garcia-Sánchez, M., Garcia-Romera, I.,Cajthaml, T., Tlustoš, P. and Száková, J. (2015) Changes in Soil Microbial Community Functionality and Structure in A Metal-Polluted Site: The Effect of Digestate and Fly Ash Applications. Journal of Environmental Management, 162, 63-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.07.042
[10] Higa, T. and Parr, J.F. (1994) Beneficial and Effective Microorganisms for a Sustainable Agriculture and Environment. Vol. 1, International Nature Farming Research Center, Atami.
[11] Ahn, K., Lee, K., Kim, Y., Koo, Y. and Korean, J. (2014) Quantitative Analysis of the Three Main Genera in Effective Microorganisms Using qPCR. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 31, 849-854.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11814-013-0274-6
[12] Hadar, Y. and Papadopoulou, K.K. (2012) Suppressive Composts: Microbial Ecology Links between Abiotic Environments and Healthy Plants. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 50, 133-153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-081211-172914
[13] Alattar, M.A., Green, T.R., Henry, J., Gulca, V., Tizazu, M., Bergstrom, R. and Popa, R. (2012) Effect of Microaerobic Fermentation in Preprocessing Fibrous Lignocellulosic Materials. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 167, 909-917.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-012-9717-5
[14] Vinhal-Freitas, I., Wangen, D.R.B., Ferreira, A.S., Corrêa, G.F. and Wendling, B. (2010) Microbial and Enzymatic Activity in Soil after Organic Composting. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 34, 757-764.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0100-06832010000300017
[15] Chaudhry, V., Rehman, A., Mishra, A. and Chauhan, P.S. (2012) Changes in Bacterial Community Structure of Agricultural Land Due to Long-Term Organic and Chemical Amendments. Microbial Ecology, 64, 450-460.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-012-0025-y
[16] Ishimura, I., Tivelli, S.W., Alves, H.S., Ramos, V.J. and Yamamoto, S. (2010) Influência de níveis do biofertilizante bokashi e do ativador de crescimento Trichoderma na produção de batata organica. Horticultura Brasileira, 28, S2741-S2745.
[17] Chagas, P.R.R. and Tokeshi, H. (2006) Produção organica utilizando-se bokashi e microrganismos benéficos (EM) no controle de pragas e doenças. Paper presented at III Cobradan—Congresso Brasileiro de Defensivos Agrícolas Naturais, Belém, PA.
http://www.cpmo.org.br/artigos/producao_organica_bokashi_paulo_chagas.pdf
[18] Jenkinson, D.S. and Ladd, J.M. (1981) Microbial Biomass in Soil: Measurement and Turnover. In: Paul, E.A. and Ladd, J.M., Eds., Soil Biochemistry, Marcel Dekker, New York, 415-471.
[19] Kelman, A. (1954) The Relationship of the Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas solanacearum to Colony Appearance on a Tetrazolium Medium. Phytopathology, 44, 693-695.
[20] Lopes, C.A. and ávila, A.C. (2005) Doenças do tomateiro. Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília.
[21] Jenkinson, D.S. and Powlson, D.S. (1976) The Effects of Biocidal Treatments on Metabolism in Soil—V. A Method for Measuring Soil Biomass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 8, 209-213.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(76)90005-5
[22] Jenkinson, D.S. and Powlson, D.S. (1976) The Effects of Biocidal Treatments on Metabolism in Soil—I. Fumigation with Chloroform. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 8, 167-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(76)90001-8
[23] Anderson, T.H. and Domsch, K.H. (2010) Soil Microbial Biomass: The Eco-Physiological Approach. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42, 2039-2043.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.06.026
[24] Sparkling, G.P. (1992) Ratio of Microbial Biomass Carbon to Soil Organic Carbon as a Sensitive Indicator of Changes in Soil Organic Matter. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 39, 195-207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SR9920195
[25] Coca, D.M. (2001) Efeito da adubação organica em batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivada em solo infestado com Ralstonia solanacearum biovar I. Master’s Thesis, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF.
[26] Mendes, R.M.K., Bruijn, I., Dekkers, E., van der Voort, M., Schneider, J.H.M., Piceno, Y.M., DeSantis, T.Z., Andersen, G.L., Bakker, P.A.H.M. and Raaijmakers, J.M. (2011) Deciphering the Rhizosphere Microbiome for Disease-Suppressive Bacteria. Science, 332, 1097-1100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1203980
[27] Silva, R.R., Silva, M.L.N., Cardoso, E.L., Moreira, F.M.S., Curi, N. and Alovisi, A.M.T. (2010) Biomassa e atividade microbiana em solo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo na região fisiográfica Campos das Vertentes—MG. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 34, 1585-1592.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0100-06832010000500011
[28] Schaefer, C.E.G.R., Fabris, J.D. and Ker, J.C. (2008) Minerals in the Clay Fraction of Brazilian Latosols (Oxisols): A Review. Clay Minerals, 43, 1-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1180/claymin.2008.043.1.11
[29] Wiseman, C.L.S. and Püttmann, W. (2006) Interactions between Mineral Phases in the Preservation of Soil Organic Matter. Geoderma, 134, 109-118.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.09.001
[30] Conceição, P.C., Boeni, M., Bayer, C., Dieckow, J., Salton, J.C. and Reis, C.E.S. (2015) Efficiency of the Dense Solutions in Physical Fractionation of Soil Organic Matter. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 39, 490-497.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/01000683rbcs20140447
[31] Bayer, C., Mielniczuk, J., Giasson, E., Martin-Neto, L. and Pavinato, A. (2006) Tillage Effects on Particulate and Mineral-Associated Organic Matter in Two Tropical Brazilian Soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 37, 389-400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00103620500446928
[32] Dinesh, R., Srinivasan, V., Hamza, S., Manjusha, A. and Kumar, P.S. (2012) Short-Term Effects of Nutrient Management Regimes on Biochemical and Microbial Properties in Soils under Rainfed Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Geoderma, 173-174, 192-198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.12.025
[33] Powlson, D.S., Brookes, P.C. and Christensen, B.T. (1987) Measurement of Soil Microbial Biomass Provides an Early Indication of Changes in the Total Soil Organic Matter Due to Straw Incorporation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 19, 159-164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(87)90076-9
[34] Spohn, M. and Chodak, M. (2015) Microbial Respiration per Unit Biomass Increases with Carbon-to-Nutrient Ratios in Forest Soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 81, 128-133.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.11.008
[35] Lwin, M. and Ranamukhaarachchi, S.L. (2006) Development of Biological Control of Ralstonia solanacearum through Antagonistic Microbial Populations. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 8, 657-660.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.