Share This Article:

Stress, Executive Function, Resilience and Quality of Life in Portuguese Subjects in Situations of Economic Insufficiency and Unemployment

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:301KB) PP. 350-361
DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.54040    4,408 Downloads   4,943 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is the investigation of the impact of stress of Portuguese subjects in situations of economic insufficiency and unemployment on executive function and quality of life and the coping strategies and resilience skills used. The sample consists of 41 participants. The psychometric instruments used are validated for Portuguese population, measure (perceived) stress, coping, material deprivation, resilience and quality of life, defined by World Health Organization. Executive function has been evaluated through performances at Stroop and Berg tasks. It has been concluded that, in this population, resilience skills and active coping strategies are positively correlated with quality of life. Quality of life is negatively correlated with material deprivation. Active coping strategies are supported by adequate executive function, which neurobiological substrate is dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. Not active coping strategies correlate negatively with cognitive flexibility, suggesting the presence of a deficit at infero-lateral prefrontal cortex.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Gonçalves, E. and de Jesus, S. (2015) Stress, Executive Function, Resilience and Quality of Life in Portuguese Subjects in Situations of Economic Insufficiency and Unemployment. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 5, 350-361. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.54040.

References

[1] Lazarus, R S. and Folkman, S. (1984) Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. Springer, New York.
[2] Selye, H. (1974) Stress without Distress. J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia.
[3] Folkman, S. and Lazarus, RS. (1980) An Analysis of Coping in a Middle Aged Community Sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 219-239. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136617
[4] Smith, C.A. and Lazarus, R.S. (1990) Emotion and Adaptation. In: Pervin, L.A., Ed., Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, Guilford, New York, 609-637.
[5] Lang, P.J. (1995) The Emotion Probe: Studies of Motivation and Attention. American Psychologist, 50, 372-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.5.372
[6] Drevets, W.C., Bogers, W. and Raichle, M.E. (2002) Functional Anatomical Correlates of Antidepressant Drug Treatment Assessed Using PET Measures of Regional Glucose Metabolism. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 12, 527-544.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-977X(02)00102-5
[7] George, M.S., Lisanby, S.H. and Sackeim, H.A. (1999) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation—Applications in Neuropsychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 300-311.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.56.4.300
[8] Cohen, S., Kessler, R.C. and Underwood Gordon, L. (1997) Measuring Stress: A Guide for Health and Social Scientists. Oxford, New York.
[9] Cohen, S., Evans, G.W., Krantz, D.S. and Stokols, D. (1986) Behavior, Health and Environmental Stress. Plenum Press, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-9380-2
[10] Suchy, Y. (2009) Executive Functioning: Overview, Assessment, and Research Issues for non-Neuropsychologists. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 106-116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12160-009-9097-4
[11] Golden, C.J. (1978) Stroop Color and Word Test: A Manual for Clinical and Experimental Uses. Skoelting, Chicago.
[12] Fuster, J.N.M. (2000) The Prefrontal Cortex of the Primate: A Synopsis. Psychobiology, 28, 125-131.
[13] Stuss, D.T., Alexander, M.P., Floden, D., et al. (2002) Fractionation and Localization of Distinct Frontal Lobe Processes: Evidence from Focal Lesions in Humans. Oxford University Press, London.
[14] Lezak, M.D., Howieson, D.B. and Loring, D.W. (2004) Neuropsychological Assessment. Oxford University Press, New York.
[15] Pujol, J., Vendrell, P., Deus, J., et al. (2001) The Effect of Medial Frontal and Posterior Parietal Demyelinating Lesions on Stroop Interference. Neuroimage, 13, 68-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2000.0662
[16] Bush, G., Frazier, J.A., Rauch, S.L., et al. (1999) Anterior Cingulate Cortex Dysfunction in Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder Revealed by fMRI and the Counting Stroop. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1542-1552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(99)00083-9
[17] Kaufmann, L., Ischebeck, A., Weiss, E., et al. (2008) An fMRI Study of the Numerical Stroop Task in Individuals with and without Minimal Cognitive Impairment. Cortex, 44, 1248-1255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2007.11.009
[18] Monchi, O., Petrides, M., Petre, V., Worsley, K. and Dagher, A. (2001) Wisconsin Card Sorting Revisited: Distinct Neural Circuits Participating in Different Stages of the Task Identified by Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 7733-7741.
http://unf-montreal.ca/oury/Site/publications/J_Neurosci_2001.pdf
[19] Frank, M.J., Loughry, B. and O’Reilly, R.C. (2001) Interactions between Frontal Cortex and Basal Ganglia in Working Memory: A Computational Model. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 1, 137-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/CABN.1.2.137
[20] Patel, V. and Kleinman, A. (2003) Poverty and Common Mental Disorders in Developing Countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81, 609-615.
[21] Simon, G.E., Revicki, D., Heiligenstein, J., et al. (2000) Recovery from Depression, Work Productivity, and Health Care Costs among Primary Care Patients. General Hospital Psychiatry, 22, 153-162.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-8343(00)00072-4
[22] Vetter, S., Endrass, J., Schweizer, I., et al. (2006) The Effects of Economic Deprivation on Psychological Well-Being among the Working Population of Switzerland. BMC Public Health, 6, 223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-6-223
[23] Elder, G.H. and Caspi, A. (1988) Economic Stress in Lives: Developmental Perspectives. Journal of Social Issues, 44, 25-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1988.tb02090.x
[24] National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NICHD (2006) Duration and Developmental Timing of Poverty and Children’s Cognitive and Social Development from Birth through Third Grade. Child Development, 76, 795-810.
[25] Goosby, B.J. (2006) Poverty and Adolescent Mental Health: The Role of Maternal Psychological Resources. Proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, 30 March-1 April 2006. http://paa2006.princeton.edu/papers/60518
[26] Patel, V., Kirkwood, B.R., Pednekar, S., Weiss, H. and Mabey, D. (2006) Risk Factors for Common Mental Disorders in Women Population-Based Longitudinal Study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 189, 547-555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.106.022558
[27] Ezzy, D. (1993) Unemployment and Mental Health: A Critical Review. Social Science and Medicine, 37, 41-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(93)90316-V
[28] Janlert, U. and Hammarstrom, A. (2009) Which Model Is Best? Explanatory Models of the Relationship between Unemployment and Health. BMC Public Health, 9, 235.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-235
[29] Morris, J.K., Cook, D.G. and Shaper, A.G. (1994) Loss of Employment and Mortality. BMJ, 308, 1135-1139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.308.6937.1135
[30] Voss, M., Nylen, L., Floderus, B., Diderichsen, F. and Terry, P.D. (2004) Unemployment and Early Cause-Specific Mortality: A Study Based on the Swedish Twin Registry. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 2155-2161. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.94.12.2155
[31] Cohen, F., Kemeny, M.E., Zegans, L.S., et al. (2007) Immune Function Declines with Unemployment and Recovers after Stressor Termination. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 225-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31803139a6
[32] Janicki-Deverts, D., Cohen, S., Matthews, K.A. and Cullen, M.R. (2008) History of Unemployment Predicts Future Elevations in C-Reactive Protein among Male Participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Annuals of Behavioral Medicine, 36, 176-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12160-008-9056-5
[33] Lindstrom, M. (2005) Psychosocial Work Conditions, Unemployment and Selfreported Psychological Health: A Population-Based Study. Occupational Medicine, 55, 568-571.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqi122
[34] Brown, D.W., Balluz, L.S., Ford, E.S., et al. (2003) Associations between Short- and Long-Term Unemployment and Frequent Mental Distress among a National Sample of Men and Women. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 45, 11569-1166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000094994.09655.0f
[35] Maier, R., Egger, A., Barth, A., et al. (2006) Effects of Short- and Long-Term Unemployment on Physical Work Capacity and on Serum Cortisol. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 79, 193-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-005-0052-9
[36] WHOQOL Group (1994) The Development of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument (The WHOQOL). In: Quality of Life Assessment: International Perspectives, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 41- 57.
[37] Wagnild, G.M. (2010) Discovering Your Resilience Core. Resiliencescale.com.
http://resiliencescale.net/papers.html
[38] Wagnild, G.M. and Young, H.M. (1993) Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1, 165-178.
[39] de Carvalho Ng, C.A.F. and Pereira, I.D. (2012) Adaptacao da “Theresiliencescale” para a populacao adulta portuguesa. Psicologia USP, 23, 417-433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-65642012005000008 http://www.revistas.usp.br/psicousp/article/viewFile/42178/45851
[40] Autoridade Tributária e Aduaneira do Ministério das Financas do Governo de Portugal (AT) (2012) Modelo 3 de Imposto sobre o Rendimento das Pessoas Singulares(IRS).
http://info.portaldasfinancas.gov.pt/NR/rdonlyres/8687C530-4D05-4CB6-ABFA-0697CC4C180F/0/IRS_2012_internet.pdf
[41] Ribeiro, J.L.P. and Rodrigues, A.P. (2004) Questoes acerca do coping: A propósito do estudo de adaptacao do Brief Cope. Psicologia, Saúde & Doencas, 5, 3-15. http://hdl.handle.net/10400.12/1054
[42] Carver, C.S. (1997) You Want to Measure Coping but Your Protocol’s Too Long: Consider the Brief COPE. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 92-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327558ijbm0401_6
[43] Ribeiro, J.L. and Morais, R. (2010) Adaptacao portuguesa da escala breve de coping resiliente. Psicologia, Saúde & Doencas, 11, 5-13.
[44] Sinclair, V.G. and Wallston, K.A. (2004) The Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Assessment, 11, 94-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191103258144
[45] Pais Ribeiro, J. and Marques, T. (2009) A avaliacao do stresse: A propósito de um estudo de adaptacao da escala de percepcao de stresse. Psicologia, Saúde & Doencas, 10, 237-248.
http://hdl.handle.net/10400.12/1091
[46] Cohen, S., Kamarck, T. and Mermelstein, R. (1983) A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2136404
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136404
[47] Silva, I., Pais-Ribeiro, J., Cardoso, H. and Ramos, H. (2003) Contributo para a adaptacao da Life Experiences Survey (LES) à populacao diabética portuguesa. Revista Portuguesa de Saúde Pública, 21, 49-60.
https://cms.ensp.unl.pt/www.ensp.unl.pt/dispositivos-de-apoio/cdi/cdi/sector-de-publicacoes/revista/2000-2008/pdfs/2-05-2003.pdf
[48] Sarason, I., Johnson, J. and Siegel, J. (1978) Assessing the Impact of Life Changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 932-946.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.46.5.932
[49] Instituto Nacional de Estatística (2010) Sobre a pobreza, as desigualdades e a priva??o material em Portugal (On-poverty, Inequality, and Material Deprivation in Portugal). INE, Lisboa.
[50] Vaz-Serra, A., Canavarro, M.C. and Simoes, M.R. (2006) Estudos psicométricos do instrumento de avaliacao da qualidade de vida da Organizacao Mundial de Saúde (WHOQOL-Bref) para Português de Portugal. Psiquiatria Clínica, 27, 41-49. http://hdl.handle.net/10849/181
[51] Mueller, S. (2010) The Stroop Test (Web Log Post). PEBL Blog.
http://peblblog.blogspot.com/2010/05/stroop-test.html
[52] Troyer, A.K., Leach, L. and Strauss, E. (2006) Aging and Response Inhibition: Normative Data for the Victoria Stroop Test. Aging, Neuropsychology & Cognition, 13, 20-35.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/138255890968187
[53] Berg, E.A. (1948) A Simple Objective Technique for Measuring Flexibility in Thinking. The Journal of General Psychology, 39, 15-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221309.1948.9918159
[54] Piper, B. (2012) Video of the Berg (Wisconsin) Card Sorting Task (Web Log Post). PEBL Blog. http://peblblog.blogspot.pt/2012/07/video-of-berg-wisconsin-card-sorting.html
[55] Fox, C.J., Mueller, S.T., Gray, H.M., Raber, J. and Piper, B.J. (2013) Evaluation of a Short-Form of the Berg Card Sorting Test. PLoS ONE, 8, 1-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063885

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.