Share This Article:

γ-Ray Modifications of Optical/Chemical Properties of Polycarbonate Polymer

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:604KB) PP. 129-137
DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.53015    2,386 Downloads   2,879 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This work was aimed to investigate the changes brought about in the polymer polycarbonate irradiated to different doses of γ-radiation. Yellowing of the samples with the increase of γ-absorbed dose was observed. The changes in the optical properties were studied by recording UV-Visible absorbance spectra of the pristine and irradiated polycarbonate films. A simultaneous coexistence of direct and indirect band gaps was observed. The indirect band gap values were found lower in comparison to the corresponding values of direct band gap in the pristine and γ-irradiated poly-carbonate. Both types of the optical band gap energies had decreasing tendency with the increasing γ-radiation dose. Urbach energy was also determined from the tail of absorption edge which was found to have increasing tendency with progressive γ-radiation dose. Increase in carbon cluster size with the increasing γ absorbed dose was also shown. This increase in the number of carbon atoms (N) in a cluster can be correlated to the optical energy band gap (Eg). Moreover, the FTIR spectra of pristine and irradiated PC samples suggest chain scissoring with apparently the elimination of carbon di/monoxide.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Gupta, D. , Kumar, S. , Kalsi, P. , Manchanda, V. and Mittal, V. (2015) γ-Ray Modifications of Optical/Chemical Properties of Polycarbonate Polymer. World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, 5, 129-137. doi: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.53015.

References

[1] Gupta, D.P., Chauhan, R.S., Kumar, S., Diwan, P.K., Khan, S.A., Tripathi, A., Singh, F., Ghosh, S., Avasthi, D.K. and Mittal, V.K. (2006) Dependence of Hydrogen Released on the Charge State of Incident Ions. Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, 161, 331-338.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10420150600703957
[2] Fink, D., Klett, R., Chadderton, L.T., Cardoso, J., Montiel, R., Vazquez, H. and Karanovich, A.A. (1996) Carbonaceous Clusters in Irradiated Polymers as Revealed by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering and ESR. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, 111, 303-314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-583X(95)01433-0
[3] Lee, E.H. (1999) Ion-Beam Modification of Polymeric Materials—Fundamental Principles and Applications. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, 151, 29-41.
[4] Aliev, R., Cedillo, G. and Burillo, G. (2000) Radiation Crosslinking of a Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate in the Presence of Bisphenol-A Dimethacrylate and Triallyl Cynaurate. Polymer Bulletin, 45, 167-174.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002890070045
[5] Shrivastva, A., Singh, T.V., Mule, S., Rajan, C.R. and Ponrathnam, S. (2002) Study of Chemical, Optical and Thermal Modifications Induced by 100 MeV Silicon Ions in a Polycarbonate Film. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, 192, 402-406.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(02)00493-7
[6] Singh, N.L., Shah, N. and Singh, K.P. (2005) Proton Induced Modification in Makrofol-DE. Bulletin of Material Science, 28, 599-602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02706349
[7] Kumar, R., Virk, H.S., Verma, K.C., De, U., Saha, A. and Prasad, R. (2006) Physico-Chemical Modifications Induced in Makrofol-N Polycarbonate by Swift Heavy Ions. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, 251, 163-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2006.06.003
[8] Radwan, R.M., Abdul Kader, A.M. and El-Hag Ali, A. (2008) Ion Bombardment Induced Changes in the Optical and Electrical Properties of Polycarbonate. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, 266, 3588-3594.
[9] Yap, E., McCulloch, D.G., McKenzie, D.R., Swain, M.V., Wielunski, L.S. and Clissold, R.A. (1998) Modification of the Mechanical and Optical Properties of Polycarbonate by 50-keV Ar+ and H+ Ion Implantation. Journal of Applied Physics, 83, 3404-3412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.367108
[10] Bahniwal, S., Sharma, A., Aggarwal, S., Deshpande, S.K., Samra, S.K. and Nair, K.G.M. (2010) Changes in Structural and Optical Properties of Polycarbonate Induced by Ag+ Ion Implantation. Journal of Macromolecular Science, 49, 259-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222340903352252
[11] Navarro-González, R., Coll, P. and Aliev, R. (2002) Pyrolysis of γ-Irradiated Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate. Polymer Bulletin, 48, 43-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00289-002-0004-4
[12] Gupta, D.P., Kumar, S., Kalsi, P.C., Manchanda, V.K. and Mittal, V.K. (2012) γ-Ray Modifications of Optical/Chemical Properties of a PVC Polymer. Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, 167, 149-156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10420150.2011.614614
[13] Betz, N., Le Moël, A., Balanzat, E., Ramillon, J.M., Lamotte, J., Gallas, P. and Jaskierowicz, G. (1994) FTIR Study of PVDF Irradiated by Means of Swift Heavy Ions. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 32, 1493-1502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/polb.1994.090320821
[14] Calcagno, L., Compagnini, G. and Foti, G. (1992) Structural Modification of Polymer Films by Ion Irradiation. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, 65, 413-422.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-583X(92)95077-5
[15] Guzman, A.M., Carlson, J.D., Bares, J.E. and Pronko, P.P. (1985) Chemical and Physical Changes Induced in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by Irradiation with High Energy Ions. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, 7-8, 468-472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-583X(85)90414-8
[16] Tauc, J., Grigorovici, R. and Vancu, A. (1966) Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium. 15, 627-637.
[17] Davis, P.W. and Shilliday, T.S. (1960) Some Optical Properties of Cadmium Telluride. Physical Review, 118, 1020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.118.1020
[18] Tauc, J., Grigorovici, R., and Vaneu, A. (1966) Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium. Physica Status Solidi, 15, 627-637. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssb.19660150224
[19] Mott, N.F. and Davis, E.A. (1979) Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials. Clarindonp, Oxford.
[20] Thutupalli, G.K.M. and Tomlin, S.G. (1976) The Optical Properties of Thin Films of Cadmium and Zinc Selenides and Tellurides. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 9, 1639-1646.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/9/11/010
[21] Saito, K. and Ikushima, A.J. (2000) Absorption Edge in Silica Glass. Physical Review, 62, 8584.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.62.8584
[22] Godmanis, I.T., Trukhin, A.N. and Hübner, K. (1983) Exciton-Phonon Interaction in Crystalline and Vitreous SiO2. Physica Status Solidi, 116, 279-287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssb.2221160133
[23] Urbach, F. (1953) The Long-Wavelength Edge of Photographic Sensitivity and of the Electronic Absorption of Solids. Physical Review, 92, 1324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.92.1324
[24] Fink, D., Chang, W.H., Klett, R., Schmolt, A., Cardoso, J., Montiel, R., Vazquez, M.H., Wang, L., Hosoi, F., Omochi, H. and Oppelt-Langer, P. (1995) Carbonaceous Clusters in Irradiated Polymers as Revealed by UV-Vis Spectrometry. Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, 133, 193-208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10420159508223990
[25] Dyer, J.R. (2005) Application of Absorption Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds. Prentice Hall, New Delhi.
[26] Pavia, D.L., Lampman, G.M. and Kriz, G.S. (2001) Introduction to Spectroscopy. 3rd Edition, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, San Diego.
[27] Phukan, T., Kanjilal, D., Goswami, T.D. and Das, H.L. (2003) Study of Optical Properties of Swift Heavy Ion Irradiated PADC Polymer. Radiation Measurements, 36, 611-614.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00210-5

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.