Share This Article:

Stretch Forming Simulation of Woven Composites Based on an Orthotropic Non-Linear Material Model

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:681KB) PP. 168-179
DOI: 10.4236/msce.2015.37023    3,160 Downloads   3,547 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Characterisation experiments have been conducted on a woven self-reinforced polypropylene composite (SRPP) including uniaxial and bias extension tests. Outcomes of these experiments were employed to develop a non-linear orthotropic material model within an incremental deformation framework. The material model of the woven composite was implemented into a finite element simulation to predict stretch forming behaviour of SRPP specimens. The predicted strain paths at the pole of specimens were verified against experimental outcomes. It was shown that specimens possessing different aspect ratios deform under a wide range of deformation modes from uniaxial extension to biaxial stretch modes. Finally, the effect of different forming parameters on the strain path evolution of the woven composite was elucidated through numerical simulations. It was shown that the aspect ratio of the samples plays an important role in forming behaviour of woven composites. Development of a reliable and accurate numerical model for predicting forming behaviour of woven composites and understanding their main forming mechanisms promote and encourage the extensive application of these materials systems in a wide range of mass producing industries. Adopting woven composites in manufacturing industrial components facilitates addressing environmental concerns such as recyclability and sustainability issues.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Zanjani, N. and Kalyanasundaram, S. (2015) Stretch Forming Simulation of Woven Composites Based on an Orthotropic Non-Linear Material Model. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 3, 168-179. doi: 10.4236/msce.2015.37023.

References

[1] Environmental Protection Agency Website: http://epa.gov
[2] Helms, H. and Lambrecht, U. (2003) Energy Savings by Light Weighting. IFEU-Institut für Energieund Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH.
[3] National Research Council. Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy- Duty Vehicles. National Academies Press.
[4] Kohler, J., Schade, W., Leduc, G., Wiesenthal, T., Schade, B. and Espinoza, L.T. (2013) Leaving Fossil Fuels Behind? An Innovation System Analysis of Low Carbon Cars. Journal of Cleaner Production, 48, 176-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.09.042
[5] Lewis, A.M., Kelly, J.C. and Keoleian, G.A. (2014) Vehicle Light Weighting vs. Electrification: Life Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions Results for Diverse Powertrain Vehicles. Journal of Applied Energy, 126, 13-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.03.023
[6] Scida, D., Aboura, Z., Benzeggagh, M.L. and Bocherens, E. (1999) A Micromechanics Model for 3D Elasticity and Failure of Woven-Fibre Composite Materials. Composite Science and Technology, 59, 505-517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0266-3538(98)00096-7
[7] Cousigné, O., Moncayo, D., Coutellier, D., Camanho, P., Na-ceur, H. and Hampel, S. (2013) Development of a New Nonlinear Numerical Material Model for Woven Composite Materials Accounting for Permanent Deformation and Damage. Composite Structures, 106, 601-614. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2013.07.026
[8] Compston, P., Cantwell, W.J., Cardew-Hall, M.J., Kalyana-sundaram, S. and Mosse, L. (2004) Comparison of Surface Strain for Stamp Formed Aluminium and Aluminium-Propylene Laminate. Journal of Material Science, 39, 6087- 6088. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JMSC.0000041707.68685.72
[9] Davey, S., Das, R., Cantwell, W.J. and Kalyanasunda-ram, S. (2013) Forming Studies of Carbon Fibre Composite Sheets in Dome Forming Processes. Journal of Composite Structures, 97, 310-316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2012.10.026
[10] Kalyanasundaram, S., Dhar Malingam, S., Venkatesan, S. and Sexton, A. (2012) Effect of Process Parameters during Forming of Self-Reinforced PP-Based Fibre Metal Laminates. Composite Structures, 97, 332-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2012.08.053
[11] Zanjani, N.A. and Kalyanasundaram, S. (2015) Induced Forming Modes in a Self-Reinforced Polypropylene Sheet during Stretch Forming Process at Room Temperature: I-Experimental Studies. Composites Part A, 68, 251-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2014.09.023
[12] Zanjani, N.A., Wang, W. and Kalyanasundaram, S. (2015) The Effect of Fibre Orientation on the Formability and Failure Behaviour of a Woven Self-Reinforced Composite during Stamp Forming. ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, in Press.
[13] Mosse, L., Compston, P., Cantwell, W.J., Cardew-Hall, M.J. and Kalyanasundaram, S. (2006) Stamp Forming of Polypropylene Based Fi-bre-Metal Laminates: The Effect of Process Variables on Formability. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 172, 163-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2005.09.002
[14] Harrison, P., Gomes, R. and Correiad, N.C. (2013) Press Forming a 0/90 Cross-Ply Advanced Thermoplastic Composite Using the Double-Dome Benchmark Geometry. Composites Part A, 54, 56-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2013.06.014
[15] Haanappel, S.P., ten Thije, R.H.W., Sachs, U., Rietman, B. and Akkerman, R. (2014) Formability Analyses of Uni-Directional and Textile Reinforced Thermoplastics. Composites Part A, 56, 80-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2013.09.009
[16] Gohari, S., Sharifi, S., Vrcelj, Z. and Yahya, M.Y. (2015) First-Ply Failure Prediction of an Unsymmetrical Laminated Ellipsoidal Woven GFRP Composite Shell with Incorporated Surface-Bounded Sensors and Internally Pressurized. Composites Part B: Engineering, 77, 502-518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2015.03.058
[17] Derakhshan, D., Komeili, M. and Milani, A.S. (201) An Analytical Approach to the Deflection Analysis of Woven Preforms and Composites under Tensile Loading Using the Winkler Theory of Curved Beams. Computational Materials Science, 96, 403-410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2014.08.044
[18] OCV Reinforcement Co.: www.ocvreinforcements.com
[19] The GOM mbH. www.GOM.com

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.