Share This Article:

Mindfulness in Schools Research Project: Exploring Students’ Perspectives of Mindfulness—What are students’ perspectives of learning mindfulness practices at school?

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:7346KB) PP. 896-914
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.67088    6,345 Downloads   10,820 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Over the last decade, the cultivation of mindfulness has become a common part of the curriculum in classrooms around the world. A recent survey indicates that nearly 50% of teachers are sharing mindfulness with children. To date, researchers have predominately used outcome-based trial designs to understand the practice’s efficacy for improving wellness in children. Less research has been directed towards understanding how children perceive mindfulness experiences. This gap inspired the research question—What are students’ perspectives of learning mindfulness practices at school? Thematic analysis was employed to understand and interpret 38 elementary school students’ mindfulness journals. Findings suggest that mindfulness enhances student wellbeing and helps children develop a greater awareness of their body, mind and emotions. Implications of these findings are discussed. Future research is required to determine how mindfulness practices enhance and sustain student wellbeing and learning.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Ager, K. , Albrecht, N. & Cohen, P. (2015). Mindfulness in Schools Research Project: Exploring Students’ Perspectives of Mindfulness—What are students’ perspectives of learning mindfulness practices at school?. Psychology, 6, 896-914. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.67088.

References

[1] Ager, K., Bucu, A., Albrecht, N. J., & Cohen, M. (2014). Mindfulness in Schools Research Project: Exploring Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives. Melbourne: RMIT University.
[2] Albrecht, N. J. (2011). Does Meditation Play an Integral Role in Achieving High-Level Wellness as Defined by Travis and Ryan (2004)? Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 8, 1-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2202/1553-3840.1373
[3] Albrecht, N. J. (2014). Wellness: A Conceptual Framework for School-Based Mindfulness Programs. The International Journal of Health, Wellness, and Society, 4, 21-36.
http://ijw.cgpublisher.com/product/pub.198/prod.161
[4] Albrecht, N. J. (2015). Teachers Teaching Mindfulness with Children. Doctoral Thesis, South Australia: Flinders University.
[5] Albrecht, N. J., Albrecht, P., & Cohen, M. (2012). Mindfully Teaching in the Classroom: A Literature Review. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37, 1-14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2012v37n12.2
[6] Attride-Stirling, J. (2001). Thematic Networks: An Analytic Tool for Qualitative Research. Qualitative Research, 1, 385-405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146879410100100307
[7] Black, D. S. (2014). Mindfulness-Based Interventions: An Antidote to Suffering in the Context of Substance Use, Misuse, and Addiction. Substance Use & Misuse, 49, 487-491.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2014.860749
[8] Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101.
http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11735/2/thematic_analysis_revised_-_final.pdf http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
[9] Burke, C. (2010). Mindfulness-Based Approaches with Children and Adolescents: A Preliminary Review of Current Research in an Emergent Field. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 133-144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-009-9282-x
[10] Campion, J., & Rocco, S. (2009). Minding the Mind: The Effects and Potential of a School-Based Meditation Programme for Mental Health Promotion. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 2, 47-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1754730X.2009.9715697
[11] Cardoso, R., de Souza, E., Camano, L., & Roberto Leite, J. (2008). Meditation for Health Purposes: Conceptual and Operational Aspects. In B. N. Deluca (Ed.), Mind-Body and Relaxation Research Focus (pp. 213-224). New York: Nova Science Publishers.
[12] Carelse, B. (2013). Children’s Experiences of Learning Mindfulness to Help Develop Their Attentional Skills. PhD Thesis, University of East London, London.
[13] Cohen, M. (2010). Wellness and the Thermodynamics of a Healthy Lifestyle. Asia Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 1, 5-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/18377122.2010.9730326
[14] Coholic, D. A. (2011). Exploring the Feasibility and Benefits of Arts-Based Mindfulness-Based Practices with Young People in Need: Aiming to Improve Aspects of Self-Awareness and Resilience. Child Youth Care Forum, 40, 303-317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10566-010-9139-x
[15] Compton, W. C., & Hoffman, E. (2013). Positive Psychology: The Science of Happiness and Flourishing (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
[16] Corbin, C. B., & Pangrazi, R. P. (2001). Toward a Uniform Definition of Wellness: A Commentary. President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, 3, 1-8.
[17] Cruchon, M. (2009). The Benefits of Integrating Mindfulness and Yoga in the Elementary Classroom. Master’s Thesis. http://www.spectrum.library.concordia.ca/976621/1/MR63087.pdf
[18] Definition of Wellness (2009). Wellness Definition: Why?
http://definitionofwellness.com/wellness-definition.html
[19] Dunn, H. L. (1961). High-Level Wellness: A Collection of Twenty-Nine Short Talks on Different Aspects of the Theme “High-Level Wellness for Man and Society”. Arlington, VA: Beatty.
[20] Elliott, R., Fischer, C. T., & Rennie, D. L. (1999). Evolving Guidelines for Publication of Qualitative Research Studies in Psychology and Related Fields. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 215-229.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466599162782
[21] Etty-Leal, J. (2010). Meditation Capsules: A Mindfulness Program for Children. Melbourne, VIC: Meditation Capsules.
[22] Freston, K. (2008). Quantum Wellness: A Practical and Spiritual Guide to Health and Wellness. New York: Weinstein Books.
[23] Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Test Review Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Child Neuropsychology, 6, 235-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/chin.6.3.235.3152
[24] Greenberg, J. S., Dintiman, G. B., & Oakes, B. M. (2004). Physical Fitness and Wellness: Changing the Way You Look, Feel, and Perform (3rd ed.). Danvers, MA: Human Kinetics.
[25] Greenberg, M. T., & Harris, A. R. (2012). Nurturing Mindfulness in Children and Youth: Current State of Research. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 161-166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00215.x
[26] Harnett, P. H., & Dawe, S. (2012). The Contribution of Mindfulness-Based Therapies for Children and families And Proposed Conceptual Integration. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17, 195-208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2011.00643.x
[27] Hollingsworth, M. A. (2009). Wellness and Academic Performance of Elementary Students. Paper based on a Program presented at the American Counseling Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Charlotte, NC, 19-23.
[28] Huppert, F. A., & Johnson, D. M. (2010). A Controlled Trial of Mindfulness Training in Schools: The Importance of Practice for an Impact on Well-Being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 264-274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439761003794148
[29] Joffe, H. (2011). Thematic Analysis. In D. Harper, & A. R. Thompson (Eds.), Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health and Psychotherapy: A Guide for Students and Practitioners, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781119973249.ch15
[30] Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An Outpatient Program in Behavioral Medicine for Chronic Pain Patients Based on the Practice of Mindfulness Meditation: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4, 33-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0163-8343(82)90026-3
[31] Larson, J. S. (1999). The Conceptualization of Health. Medical Care Research and Review, 56, 123-136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107755879905600201
[32] Mackey, S. (2000). Towards a Definition of Wellness. Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 7, 34.
[33] McQuaid, M. (2012). Creating Happy Schools. Wellbeing Happiness (pp. 36-41). Sydney, AU: Universal Magazines.
[34] Miller, J. W. (2005). Wellness: The History and Development of a Concept. Spektrum Freizeit, 1, 84-102.
[35] Neilson, E. (1988). Health Values: Achieving High Level Wellness-Origins, Philosophy, Purpose. Health Values, 12, 3-5.
[36] Ospina, M. B., Bond, K., Karkaneh, M., Tjosvold, L., Vandermeer, B., & Liang, Y. (2007). Meditation Practices for Health: State of the Art. University of Alberta Evidence-Based Practice Centre.
[37] Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
[38] Rechtschaffen, D. (2014). The Way of Mindful Education: Cultivating Well-Being in Teachers and Students. New York: WW Norton & Company.
[39] Roeser, R. W., Skinner, E., Beers, J., & Jennings, P. A. (2012). Mindfulness Training and Teachers’ Professional Development: An Emerging Area of Research and Practice. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 167-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00238.x
[40] Schoeberlein, D. R. (2009). Mindful Teaching and Teaching Mindfulness: A Guide for Anyone Who Teaches Anything. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications Inc.
[41] Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Lawlor, M. S. (2010). The Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Education Program on Pre- and Early Adolescents Wellbeing and Social and Emotional Competence. Mindfulness, 1, 137-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-010-0011-8
[42] Shapiro, S. L., & Carlson, L. E. (2009). The Art and Science of Mindfulness: Integrating Mindfulness into Psychology and the Helping Professions. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11885-000
[43] Shapiro, S. L., Lyons, K. E., Miller, R. C., Butler, B., Vieten, C., & Zelazo, P. D. (2014). Contemplation in the Classroom: A New Direction for Improving Childhood Education. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 1-30.
[44] Shapiro, S. L., Oman, D., Thoresen, C. E., Plante, T. G., & Flinders, T. (2008). Cultivating Mindfulness: Effects on Well-Being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 840-862. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20491
[45] Smith, S. E. (2010). To Be Wise and Kind: A Buddhist Community Engagement with Victorian State Primary Schools. Doctoral Dissertation. http://vuir.vu.edu.au/id/eprint/15538
[46] Smith, S. E. (2013). Buddhist Voices in School. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-416-1
[47] Snel, E. (2013). Sitting Still Like a Frog: Mindfulness Exercises for Kids (and Their Parents). Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications.
[48] Stone, J. R. A. (2014). Mindfulness in Schools: Taking Present Practice into Account. DECP Debate Edition. https://northampton.academia.edu/JacquelineStone/Papers
[49] The State of South Australia. Department of Education and Children’s Services (2007). DECS Learner Wellbeing Framework for Birth to Year 12.
http://www.decd.sa.gov.au/learner wellbeing/files/links/link_72840.pdf
[50] Travis J., & Callander M. (2009). Beyond Ordinary Wellness: Full-Spectrum Wellness. Work in Progress.
[51] Travis, J. W., & Ryan, R. S. (2004). Wellness Workbook: How to Achieve Enduring Health and Vitality. New York: Random House LLC.
[52] Weaver, H. N. (2002). Perspectives on Wellness: Journeys on the Red Road. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 29, 5-15.
[53] Wellness Society (2009). Welcome to Wellness Society.org. http://www.wellnesssociety.org/index.aspx
[54] Willard, C. (2010). Child’s Mind: Mindfulness Practices to Help Our Children Be More Focused, Calm and Relaxed. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press.
[55] Williams, M., Teesdale, J., Segal, Z. & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2007). The Mindful Way through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness. New York: Guilford Publications.
[56] Yager, Z. (2011). Health Education in Teacher Education: Evaluation of Learning Design with Embedded Personal Wellness Learning and Assessment Focus. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36, 107-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2011v36n10.6

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.